The Skeletal System

Access Code (located on the lid of your lab kit): Click here to enter text.

Pre-Lab Questions:

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”1. List the functions of the skeletal system.”

Click here to enter text.” 2. What material contributes the greatest to the compressive strength of bone? ”

Click here to enter text.” 3. Briefly describe the process of bone remodeling. ”

Click here to enter text. Experiment 1: Classification of Bones

Post-Lab Questions

”1. Why is it important to classify bones? ”

Click here to enter text.” 2. Aside from length, what are some other common characteristics of a long bone? Are long bones typically associated with the axial or appendicular skeleton? ”

Click here to enter text.” 3. Compare flat bones and long bones. How are they different? How are they the same? ”

Click here to enter text.

Experiment 2: Digital Slide Image Examination—Bone

Post-Lab Questions

”1. Label the arrows in the following digital slide images: ”

”Cortical Bone: ”

A- Click here to enter text.

B- Click here to enter text.

C- Click here to enter text. D- Click here to enter text.

”Trabecular Bone: ”

A- Click here to enter text.

B- Click here to enter text.

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”2. Compare and contrast cortical and trabecular bone. ”

Click here to enter text. ”3. What is the purpose of cortical bone? What is the purpose of trabecular bone? ”

Click here to enter text. ”4. What are trabeculae? What is their function? ”

Click here to enter text. ”5. What are haversian systems? What is their function? ”

Click here to enter text.

Experiment 3: Virtual Model – The Axial Skeleton

Insert screenshot of the coccyx:

Insert screenshot of the sternum:

Insert screenshot of the occipital condyle:

Insert screenshot of the parietal bone:

Post-Lab Questions

”1. What features are located medial to the cranium and the mandible? Identify the category here. How many individual items are included in this category? Hint: The answer is not a bone.

Click here to enter text. ”2. Why aren’t teeth considered bones? ”

Click here to enter text. ”3. Identify the two major bones which compose the head. ”

Click here to enter text. ”4. To what bone does the right scapula attach? ”

Click here to enter text. ”5. Is the left clavicle superior or inferior to the right scapula? ”

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Experiment 4: Physical Skeleton – The Axial Skeleton

Table 12: Cervical Vertebrae Observations

Vertebral Feature Observations
Size of cervical vertebrae in comparison to those of the thoracic and lumbar region Click here to enter text.
Shape of the vertebral foramen Click here to enter text.
Spinous process of the C3 – C6

vertebrae

Click here to enter text.
Spinous process of the C7 vertebra Click here to enter text.

 

Table 13: Thoracic Vertebrae Observations

Vertebral Feature Observations
Size and weight of the thoracic vertebrae in comparison to those of the cervical and lumbar region Click here to enter text.
Shape of the vertebral body Click here to enter text.
Appearance and projection direction of the spinous process Click here to enter text.

 

Table 14: Lumbar Vertebrae Observations

Vertebral Feature Observations
Size of the lumbar vertebrae in comparison to those of the cervical and thoracic region Click here to enter text.
Shape of the vertebral body Click here to enter text.
Appearance and projection direction of the spinous process Click here to enter text.

 

 

Table 15: Rib Feature Observations

Rib Feature Observations
Length of ribs 1 – 7 (do they increase or decrease in length?) Click here to enter text.
Length of ribs 8 – 12 (do they increase or decrease in length?) Click here to enter text.
Articulation of the ribs and thoracic vertebrae (notice the specific rib and vertebra that articulate) Click here to enter text.

 

Post-Lab Questions

”1. What are the three components of the axial skeleton? Describe the function of each. ” Click here to enter text.

”2. On the skull below, fill in the blanks with the correct bone names. ”

A- Click here to enter text.

B- Click here to enter text. C- Click here to enter text. D- Click here to enter text. E- Click here to enter text.

F- Click here to enter text. lab006fig032

 

”3. For the following bones, state whether they are cranial or facial bones and give their location. ”

Bone Facial or Cranial Location
Temporal Bones Click here to enter text. Click here to enter text.
Mandible Click here to enter text. Click here to enter text.
Vomer Click here to enter text. Click here to enter text.
Zygomatic Bones Click here to enter text. Click here to enter text.
Parietal Bones Click here to enter text. Click here to enter text.
Ethmoid Bone Click here to enter text. Click here to enter text.
Sphenoid Bone Click here to enter text. Click here to enter text.
Lacrimal Bones Click here to enter text. Click here to enter text.

 

”4. What are the three regions of the vertebral column? Describe the general shape and size of the vertebrae in each region. ”

Click here to enter text. ”5. What are the atlas and axis? What are their functions? ”

Click here to enter text. ”6. On the vertebra below, fill in the blanks with the correct vertebral structure. ”

A- Click here to enter text.

B- Click here to enter text. C- Click here to enter text.

D- Click here to enter text.

E- Click here to enter text.

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7. What is the purpose of the thoracic cage? ”

Click here to enter text.” 8. Describe the three components of the sternum. ”

Click here to enter text. 9. Describe the difference between true ribs, false ribs and floating ribs. ”

Click here to enter text.

Experiment 5: Virtual Model – The Appendicular Skeleton

Insert screenshot of the radius:

 

 

Insert screenshot of the scapula:

 

Insert screenshot of the tarsus:

 

 

Insert screenshot of the patella:

 

Post-Lab Questions

”1. How many left metatarsals are there? ”

Click here to enter text.” 2. Is the right fibula inferior or superior to the patella? ”

Click here to enter text. ”3. Are the ossa digitorum or the ossa metatarsalia more medial? ”

Click here to enter text. ”4. Which two bones attach to the patella? ”

Click here to enter text. ”5. Identify the three bones which comprise the leg. ”

Click here to enter text.

 

 

 

Experiment 6: Physical Skeleton – The Appendicular Skeleton

Post-Lab Questions

”1. What are the four parts of the upper extremity and the four parts of lower extremity of the appendicular skeleton?”

Click here to enter text. ”2. Compare and contrast the size and function of the upper and lower extremities of the appendicular skeleton. ”

Click here to enter text. ”3. What are the three fused bones that make up the coxae of the pelvic girdle? What is their location in relationship to one another? ”

Click here to enter text.

Experiment 7: Articulations

Post-Lab Questions

”1. What two ways can joints be classified? What are the three classifications of each type? ”

Click here to enter text. ”2. Fibrous joints are either sutures or syndesmoses. What is the difference between the two? Give examples of each type. ”

Click here to enter text. ”3. A symphysis and synchondroses are two classifications of what type of joint? What are the differences between the two classifications? ”

Click here to enter text. ”4. What allows synovial joints to be diarthrotic? ”

Click here to enter text. ”5. For the following, match the correct synovial joint to the movement it produces. ”

 

Pivot Joint Gliding Joint

Ball and Socket Joint  Condyloid Joint

Saddle Joint Hinge Joint

 

Joint Articulating Bones Type of Synovial Joint Movement
Elbow Click here to enter text. Click here to enter text. Click here to enter text.
Knee Click here to enter text. Click here to enter text. Click here to enter text.
Hip Click here to enter text. Click here to enter text. Click here to enter text.
Ankle Click here to enter text. Click here to enter text. Click here to enter text.
Wrist Click here to enter text. Click here to enter text. Click here to enter text.

 

 

 

 

Experiment 11: Skeletal System of the Fetal Pig

Table 31: Skeletal Region Observations

Skeletal Region Observations
Axial Skeleton Click here to enter text.
Appendicular Skeleton Click here to enter text.
Joints Click here to enter text.

 

 

Post-Lab Questions

”1. What are some of the similarities and differences you noticed between the human skeletal system and the palpation of the fetal pig skeletal system? ”

Click here to enter text.

”Insert photo of pig in dissection tray with your name and access code clearly visible in the background: ”

 

 

 

 

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