The Renal System

Learning Objective #2: Explain the renal system changes and nursing implications for older people.

Learning Objective #3: Initiate education, preparation, and monitoring for patients undergoing diagnostic studies, including labs, 24-hour urine collection, any that use contrast media, and kidney biopsy.

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a. What are the normal ranges for urine specific gravity, creatinine clearance, serum creatinine, serum BUN, and GFR?

b. What is the significance of abnormal values of urine specific gravity, creatinine clearance, serum creatinine, BUN, and GFR in kidney disorders?

c. What is the purpose and proper collection steps for a 24-hour urine collection?

d. What are the pre-, intra-, and post-procedure interventions and rationales for a patient who will receive intravenous contrast media during a diagnostic test?

Brunner and Suddarth Chapter 54


· Chronic Kidney Disease, pp 1569-1570

· Acute Kidney Injury, pp 1576-1581

· ESKD, pp 1581-1589

· Renal Replacement Therapies, pp 1589-1602


· Chart 54-1, Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease

· Figure 54-4, Causes of Acute Kidney Injury

· Chart 54-6, Assessing for ESKD

· Chart 54-7, Nursing Care for ESKD

Learning Objective #1: Differentiate between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI).

a. What is the definition and diagnostic criteria of AKI?

b. What are the categories and causes associated with each category for AKI?

c. What is the definition of CKD?

d. What are the risk factors and causes of CKD?



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