The Chemical Basis of Life

· Name and describe the subatomic parts of an atom.

· Describe and discuss the energy levels of an atom.

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· Draw a simplified atomic structure of an atom with an atomic number less than 20.

· Distinguish between covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonds.

· Describe the properties of water and their importance to living things.

· Define an acid and a base; describe the pH scale, and state the significance of buffers.

 

I. Living things obey the laws of _________________ and _______________ and are the product of chemical reactions. To better understand complex biological processes, we must often reduce them to simpler steps at a lower level of organization.

 

II. Matter is anything that takes up ________________ and has __________________. It may exist as _________________________________, or ______________.

 

III. Elements are basic types of matter, substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means. There are ________naturally occurring elements (+ more synthesized ones). Each element is represented by a symbol. Elements are essential for life. [FYI: The 12 most abundant elements include C HOPKNS CaFe Mg NaCl (C. Hopkins café (food tastes) mighty good with salt.)] The four elements that are most abundant in living things: ____________________________________________________________. Trace ________________, including I, Zn, Cu, etc., are present in very small amounts, but essential for health.

 

 

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