The exploration of these belief systems still begs the question of what we mean by spirituality and how spirituality is manifested within African psychology principles and practices. Perhaps it makes sense to continue this segment of our discussion by delineating the assumptions that guide our thinking here. It is our position that the ultimate nature of reality is spirit, and that everything on this earth and in the universe that lives is spirit. We also believe that human beings are divine spirit energy manifested in human forms, and to be human is to be spirit energy in motion. We also assume that consciousness represents the abil- ity of the human being to be aware of oneself in relationship to others, and all material things; and that the connection to the human condition is experienced through a review of one’s history, one’s experiences in the present, and one’s anticipation of the future. As such, we also assume that our humanity is af- firmed by recognizing the humanity in others, where reciprocal human relations and proper conduct are the experiential anchors of our beingness. What we are saying here, as Nobles and Ani have before us, is that spirit in its most elementary form is an energy or life force that is the inner essence and outer envelop of human beingness. Human beings emit energy that is both given and received by self and others across the spheres of time, place, person, and space. The modes of expression that serve as conduits to those spiritual connections to others are consciousness, emotions (joy, laughter, love, affirma- tion, belonging, pain, anger, and even hurt), and behaviors (both verbal and nonverbal). It is also our belief that life experiences provide opportunities to manifest spirit in relation to other people and the world around us. We also be- lieve that humans are on a trajectory in life, seeking to align their consciousness with their destiny (this is the essence of the principle “Ori-Ire”). Consequently, there are forces in the universe that will both facilitate and/or inhibit that journey, and one’s culture then helps to insulate the modes of expression from those forces that would negatively alter one’s trajectory toward their own divine destiny.

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