Student Guide for Paper 1

  1. Write a short term paper on a business / economics topic of your choice. Think of this paper as a short literature review.

Note 1: Your research papers must be your own original work!  Be sure to give proper credit when you borrow or use someone else’s words and ideas, including your own previously written works. See the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association pages 15-16 for specific information on Plagiarism and Self-Plagiarism.  If proper credit is not given to the work of others, the paper will be assigned a grade of 0.
Note 2:  If you choose to use the same topic for Paper 1 and for Paper 2, remember that your review of related literature for Paper 1 will be part of the research design you develop in Paper 2.   Choose sources for Paper 1 that will fit well with the research design you plan to develop in Paper 2.
Note 3:  Write your paper in third person.  Scholarly works such as Paper 1 generally are written in third person to avoid reader concern about bias in an empirical study.

  1. Use APA formatting. A large portion of your grade will be based on formatting.  The items below provide basic APA formatting information that will help you as you begin the formatting process.  You may have a formatting need, however, that is not covered in this basic information.  You are responsible for reading all of the APA publication manual, identifying the formatting guidelines that apply to your specific need, and using the guidelines in formatting your paper.


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  1. Include the following parts in your paper with appropriate headings (See APA Section 2.05 Introduction and APA Section 3.03 Levels of Headings) .

3.1    Title page (APA 2.01 – 2.03, Manuscript Elements; 8.03 Ordering of manuscript       pages, title page)
3.2    Abstract (APA 2.04, Abstract)
3.3    Content section that includes an introduction, body, and conclusion with appropriate headings (See APA Section 2.05 Introduction and APA Section 3.03 Levels of Headings).

  • References (APA 2.11, References)


  1. The content section must be no more than four (4) double-spaced pages in length.


  1. Use a minimum of four current references from scholarly or peer-reviewed journals or sources. Do not use any sources for your paper other than those that are scholarly or peer-reviewed works.  Use of more than four current references is acceptable since more than four sources are often needed to cover a topic.  All citations and references, however, must be from scholarly or peer-reviewed sources.

As you select journal articles or other sources for use in your paper, collect information for each source to document that it is a scholarly or peer-reviewed source.  Be prepared to provide the documentation that each source is a scholarly or peer-reviewed work upon request as papers are turned in for grading and/or as papers are being graded.
One way to determine if a reference is a scholarly or peer-reviewed work, particularly in the case of journal articles, is to go to the publication’s web site.  A scholarly or peer reviewed journal will clearly identify itself as such on its Home page and/or on its About page.  A good example of this is the Journal of Human Resources which clearly states on its Home page at that it publishes academic papers.  A screen print with this type of information will suffice as documentation of a scholarly or peer-reviewed source for the purpose of this paper.  For additional guidance on how to determine if a source is a scholarly or peer-reviewed source, check with a university librarian.
As you review journal articles and other sources and consider each one for use in your paper, think critically about the articles you select for reference in your paper.  As you consider use of each article, ask yourself, “Does this article follow a good research design and proper format?” 
As you write your assessment of each article for your paper, you should address the following:

  • What are the major assumptions (i.e., arguments/supposition/hypotheses)? How restrictive are they? How do they facilitate the analysis? How sensitive are the results to the specific assumptions?


  • What are the major results? What is the practical and theoretical significance of the results? Do the results have implications other than those discussed by the authors?


  • What additional issues would be worthwhile to explore? What approaches could be taken to studying these issues?


  1. Below are reminders about APA formatting and hints about the use of Word that will help you prepare your paper.

6.1    Use Times New Roman 12 point font.  (APA 8.03, Typeface)
6.2    Use one inch top, bottom, left and right margins.  (APA 8.03, Margins)
6.3    Use flush left text alignment.  (APA 8.03, Line length and alignment)
6.4    Use double line spacing throughout the document.  Hint: Set Word’s line spacing to double with zero spacing before and after paragraphs.  (APA 8.03, Line spacing)
6.5    Use a one-half inch indent for new paragraphs.  Hint:  Use Word’s first line indent feature.  (APA 8.03, Paragraphs and indentation)
6.6    Use appropriately formatted titles and headings to clearly identify each part of the content section of the paper.  Be sure to use character formatting as specified by the APA guide.  (APA 3.02, Organizing a Manuscript With Headings; APA 3.03, Levels of Heading)
6.7    Use APA formatting for text entry of short and long quotations (Hint: The formats are different.).  (APA 6.03, Direct Quotation of Sources)
Note:  For the purpose of this course, five or more words taken from an author / journal and used in your paper must be formatted and cited as a quote.
6.8    Use APA formatting for citation of short and long quotations (Hint:  The citation format for short and long quotations is the same.  A direct quotation citation has author(s) last name, year, and page number(s) or paragraph number(s) for non-paginated material.)  (APA 6.03, Direct Quotation of Sources)
Note:  For the purpose of this course, five or more words taken directly from an author / journal and used in your paper must be cited as a direct quotation.
6.9    Use APA formatting for citation of paraphrased text (Hint:  A paraphrase citation must have author(s) last name and year.  The paraphrase citation may have (but is not required to have) a page or paragraph number if it would help an interested reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text.
( APA 6.04, Paraphrasing Material)
6.10  Use APA formatting for the graphics in your paper.  Graphics may be tables or figures.  Note that the formatting of titles and text associated with tables and figures is not the same.  (APA 5.01 – 5.30, General Guidance on Tables and Figures)
6.11  Use APA formatting for content in the reference section.  Content varies depending on the type of reference.  Remember that your references must be scholarly peer-review journals.  (APA 6.22 – 6.32, Reference List; 7.01 – 7.11, Reference Examples)
6.12  Use APA formatting for text entry in the reference section.  Hint:  Use Word’s hanging indent feature to indent each line other than the first in reference entries.
(APA 2.11, References)
6.13 Be sure that each citation has an entry in your reference section and that each reference entry has a citation in the content portion of your paper (APA 6.11).


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