Speech and Hearing Science

1. Identify two factors that affect the frequency of vibration and describe the way in which each factor affects frequency.

a. _________________________________________________________

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_________________________________________________________

b. _________________________________________________________

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2. The distance that one cycle of vibration occupies in space is known as ________________________________________.

3. During vowel production, the acoustic signal that leaves the mouth has a spectral configuration which is the product of the _______________ function and the _________________ function.

4. A tuning fork is set into vibration. The type of waveform that will result is ______________________. In time, the amplitude of vibration will decrease. This phenomenon is known as _____________________________________.

 

 

 

5. The supra laryngeal vocal tract acts as a complex (LOW PASS / BAND PASS / HIGH PASS / BAND REJECT)filter.

6. Amplitude of vibration is determined by:

_____________________________ and _______________________________.

7. The frequencies at which the vocal tract “filter” permits maximum energy transfer are called _____________________________________.

8. A sinusoidal waveform — like any simple harmonic motion — can be completely specified if three parameters are known: _______________________________; _____________________________; _______________________________.

9. ______________________________ is the restoring force that causes air particles to bounce back when displaced. _______________________________ is the force which permits an air particle to move beyond its theoretical “resting” position during vibration.

10. There are two classes of a periodic complex signals: _____________________________ and _______________________________.

11. An amplitude spectrum displays _______________________ information as a function of _________________________. The amplitude spectrum of a complex periodic waveform is called a(n) _____________________________. The amplitude spectrum of an aperiodic complex waveform is called a(n) __________________________________.

12. Deviation of a sinusoidal wave from the zero line to its peak or trough is known as ____________________________.

13. Harmonics are more closely spaced for signals with (HIGH / LOW)fundamental frequencies.

14. Lowering the larynx has the effect of (SHORTENING / LENGTHENING)the vocal tract, which will (INCREASE / DECREASE)the cross-sectional area of the vocal tract and (INCREASE / DECREASE)all resonant frequencies.

15. The time it takes for a complex quasi-periodicwaveform to complete one cycle of vibration is called _______________________________.

16. What is the frequency of a sinusoidal waveform having a wavelength of 1.372 meters? __________________________

 

 

 

 

17. If a speaker produces the vowel /u/ two times, first at an foof 230 Hz and then again at 250 Hz, the (TRANSFER FUNCTION / GLOTTALSOURCE / BOTH GLOTTAL SOURCE AND TRANSFER FUNCTION)has/have changed.

18. Two 120 Hz sinusoidal waves, having peak-to-peak amplitudes of 0.0008 dynes/cm2and .0004 dynes/cm2are shifted in time by one-half period. These two waves are said to be _____ degrees out-of-phase. Describe the waveform that would result if these two sound waves were added together:

TYPE OF WAVEFORM _______________________________

FREQUENCY _______________________________

PEAK AMPLITUDE _______________________________

19. If a speaker produces the vowel /i/ at 100 Hz and then the vowel /u/ at 150 Hz, the ( TRANSFER FUNCTION / GLOTTAL SOURCE / BOTH GLOTTAL SOURCE AND TRANSFER FUNCTION )has/have changed.

20. According to the Acoustic Transmission Line resonance model, the vocal tract can be modeled after a uniform tube which is closed at the _____________ end and open at the ___________. This system is known as a(n) _______________ resonator. It can only be applied to the resonance characteristics of one American English vowel: _____.

21. Identify the type of spectra that will result for a:

Complex quasi- periodic signal _____________________________

Complex aperiodic signal _________________________________

Hoarse vowel production _________________________________

22. If a speaker produces the diphthong /au/ at a fundamental frequency of 250 Hz. Which of the following has/have changed during the production? (VOCAL TRACT TRANSFER FUNCTION / GLOTTAL SOURCE / BOTH GLOTTAL SOURCE AND VOCAL TRACT TRANSFER FUNCTION / NEITHER GLOTTAL SOURCE OR VOCAL TRACT TRANSFER FUNCTION).

23. During vowel production, the cross-sectional area of the vocal tract is determined by: ______________________________; ______________________________ and ______________________________.

24. Using the Double Helmholtz Resonatormodel, explain why, among American English vowels, F1 and F2 are maximally divergent for the vowel /i/.

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PART II. ILLUSTRATED QUESTIONS

A. Examine the waveforms below. They occur simultaneously in the same medium. Amplitude values are expressed in millivolts (mV). (20 points)

  • 4.5
  • / ŋ /
  • / j /
  • / s /
  • / dʒ/
  • / h /
  • / w /
  • / i /
  • / tʃ /
  • / Ө /
  • / k /

TIME (msec)

For each waveform, describe the following (remember to include units of measurement):

Wave A Wave B

Period: __________ __________

Frequency: __________ __________

Peak Amplitude: __________ __________

Peak-to-peak Amplitude: __________ __________

Wavelength: __________ __________

Describe the phase relationship between:

Waves A and B. ________________________________________

In the space below draw the resulting waveform and spectrum (label both axes and provide units of measurement)

B. The figure below shows a few cycles of a sustained /a/ production at a speaker’s comfortable pitch and loudness. Amplitude is in milliVolts (mV) (20 points)

+12

-12

0 3.5 7

Time (ms)

1. What is the fundamental period of this waveform? _____________

2. What is the fundamental frequency of this waveform? _____________

3. What is the period of the first harmonic? _____________

4. What is the frequency of the first harmonic? ______________

5. What is the frequency of the fifth harmonic? ______________

6. What is the maximum peak-to-peak amplitude (in Volts)? ____________

7. What is the maximum peak amplitude (in Volts)? ____________

8. Compute the wavelength of this signal propagated in air (assuming normal atmospheric conditions) ________________

9. Was this /a/ produced by an adult male, adult female, or child? ________

10. Draw the spectrum of this signal (up to 2000 Hz) before it was filtered by the vocal tract. (glottal spectrum)

BE SURE TO LABEL YOUR AXES AND PROVIDE UNITS WHERE POSSIBLE

  • For each of the following phonemes, identify the vocal tract sound source or sources(specificanatomic location(s) within the vocal tract) and provide a completeacoustic description.(24 points)

Phoneme Sound Source Acoustic Description

C. OPTIONAL EXTRA CREDIT PROBLEM (14 extra points)

A bouquet of helium balloons has been delivered to a party you are attending. At one point during the evening, the host (an adult female who presents with a vocal tract length of 14.25 cm.) inhales the gas from the balloon and prolongs the vowel /Λ/. You note that the host’s vocal quality is somewhat peculiar. (HINT: The propagation velocity of sound in helium is 1005 m/sec)

Given the fundamental period of the host’s / Λ / was 4.17 msec., draw:

  • The glottal source spectrum (only up to 2000 Hz)
  • The vocal tract transfer function (showing the first 3 resonantfrequencies)
  • The spectrum of the vowel after the signal has passed through the supralaryngeal vocal tract (only up to 2000 Hz)
  • What do you think accounted for the host’s peculiar vocal quality?

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