Prevention using One-Way Hash Chains

Secure Efficient Ad hoc Distance vector (SEAD)

The Secure Efficient Ad hoc Distance vector (SEAD) [16] is a secure ad hoc network routing protocol based on the design of the DSDV [1] routing protocol, in particular, on the DSDV- SQ version of this protocol. SEAD uses a hash chain to authenticate hop counts and sequence numbers and does not involve any asymmetric cryptographic operations.

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In SEAD, each node creates its hash chain by applying a one-way hash function to a random value. Furthermore, particular elements from the hash chain are used to secure the updates of the routing protocol. However, the protocol is based on the assumption of the existence of a certain mechanism in order to authenticate one element of a hash chain between two nodes. Hence, when a node sends or transmits a routing update, it includes one value from the hash chain for each entry in that update. In a way that a node includes the address of the destination node, the metric and the sequence number of the destination from its routing table, and the hash value to the hash of the hash value received in the routing update entry from which it learned that route to that destination. If the update concerns itself, the node includes its own address, it sets the metric to 0 and the sequence number to the next sequence number, and the hash value to the first element in its own hash chain corresponding to that sequence number. Nodes receiving a routing update check the authentication of each entry of the message, by hashing the hash value received of each entry the correct number of times and it is compared to the prior authentic hash value. According to this comparison the routing update is either accepted as authenticated or discarded. Using this technique, other nodes can only increase the metric in a routing update, but not to decrease it.

SEAD is robust against multiple uncoordinated attackers trying to create an incorrect routing state in any other node, even in spite of compromised nodes or active attackers.


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