Pandemic in a Smart City

Instructions (NEEDED IN THE NEXT 10 HOURS)

4 pages long, single-spaced, font 12 times new romans work cited in mla format

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Once you have chosen 5 sources and evaluated your sources, draft a citation in MLA format and create an annotation to follow. In your annotation for each source, be sure to:

  1. Summarize the content and purpose of the source
  2. Provide a brief evaluation of the source, including its rhetorical situation and the author’s rhetorical skills.
  3. Explicitly detail how you plan on using this source as a part of your research/writing
  4. P.S I have attached my explanatory essay at the end to let you know what my research topic is and what the annotated bibliography should be about


Das, D., & Zhang, J. J. (2021). Pandemic in a smart city: Singapore’s COVID-19 management through technology & society. Urban Geography42(3), 408-416.

Pleyers, G. (2020). The Pandemic is a battlefield. Social movements in the COVID-19 lockdown. Journal of Civil Society16(4), 295-312.

Schwab, K., & Malleret, T. (2020). The Great Reset. In World Economic Forum: Geneva, Switzerland.

Vargo, D., Zhu, L., Benwell, B., and Yan, Z. (2020). Digital technology use during COVID-19 Pandemic: A rapid review. Wiley Online Library.

Zeebaree, M., Sattar, S., & Shukri, N. (2020). Innovative Technologies Impact on Socio-economic, Health, and Educational Activities during COVID-19 Era. Prensa Med Argent S3, 2-7.



Research Question: To what extent would teaching graphic  novels  in the  English classroom create  a  more  inclusive  environment?



Downey, Elizabeth M. “Graphic Novels in Curriculum and Instruction Collections.” User Services Quarterly, vol. 49, no. 2, 2011, pp. 181 doi:10.5860/rusq.49n2.181.

Summary & Evaluation: Reference & 188. Academic Search Ultimate, In 2009, Elizabeth M. Downey evaluated the importance of collaboration with academic libraries so that present educators and future educators are provided with the materials that  they need for their instruction using graphic  novels (186). Downey conducts a literature review and reveals that  there  are  few  publications relating to graphic  novels  actively being collected in  academic  libraries  (182). Additionally, Downey provides explanations as  to why graphic  novels  in a  curriculum lead to  increased medium  literacy, support  visual  learning, aid in  the  teaching of important  literary  tools, and offer lessons  to readers  (183). This  section would specifically be  useful  to her researchers  looking  into the  effects  of graphic  novels  as learning  tools. Downey’s evaluation would be useful to my research question, because several  of the  topics  that  she  goes  over directly coincide  with the  “why”  aspect  of my research question. Understanding why graphic novels can promote different aspects  of learning  is  important  to understanding how  they can  lead to  an inclusive  environment. Downey briefly goes over things such as  graphic  novels  offering medium  literacy, visual learning,  teaching literary  tools  and social  lessons, but  she  also provides  dated studies  as evidence, which is  a  weak spot. It would be useful to  know  if the  novels  mentioned are the  only graphic  novels  that  had ever been taught  up  to that  point, and  their success  rate in teaching certain  themes  and topics  with more  specific  groups  of students.

Plans: I would use Downey’s  research in my article  to introduce  some  of the  ways  using graphic  novels  are  helpful  as  learning tools. Due to the  date  that  it  was  published (2009), I think that  it  would be  best  used towards  the  beginning of my research proposal.  The effects of graphic novels on students’ literacy, visual learning,  and more  are  still mentioned in more  recent  data, which would be  a  way to connect  her research to other sources. Many of the references used in Downey’s research date back to the  1990s, so I think that  it  would be  useful  to  employ Downey’s  research as  a  steppingstone  for graphic novels  becoming more  accepted in  the  learning  environment  rather than solely as entertainment. Downey’s research is specifically limiting in how graphic  novels  are  used to teach students  with specific  learning disabilities. She mentions only generalized Schorn 2 groups, so it would be significant for further research to be conducted on specific types of learning disabilities to best represent if graphic novels can offer inclusivity to all students.




Gillenwater, Cary. “Lost Literacy: How Graphic Novels Can Recover Visual Literacy in the Literacy Classroom.” Afterimage, vol. 37, no. 2, 2009, pp. 33-36. Academic Search Ultimate, doi:10.1525/aft.2009.37.2.33.

Summary & Evaluation: Gillenwater presents the importance of visual literacy in a society that is filled with visual media, and how the neglect of this mode of literacy can be harmful to a student’s interpretative abilities. An argument posed by Rudolf Arnheim is noted, explaining that the written word and the images associated with them as a form of symbolism, rely on each other in order for a meaning to be fully understood. Graphic novels can help with the identification of symbolism. Gillenwater also introduces work from Wolfgang Isere in conjunction with Arnheim, and this leads to the explanation that print literacy is dependent on a reader’s ability to fill in the gaps with their imagination in order to visualize what is at work. It is important that a reader become familiar with perceiving concepts, and this can be trained through visual aids, such as graphic novels (33-36). This article provides a strong explanation as to how and why visual literacy and print literacy work together. The author weaves several pieces of research together in order to create the claims that are made. This would be a great resource for educators that are looking into whether graphic novels in the classroom a good idea are, because it describes how only teaching print literacy can hurt a student’s approach and awareness while reading a text. The article lacked a target age/learning group, as the author didn’t conduct their own research, but rather pulled from multiple researchers’ works. This begs the question of whether or not visual literacy should be taught early, later, or only to specific learning groups of students.

Plans: I plan to use this article in order to identify the importance of focusing on visual and print literacy in the classroom conjointly. I think that it would best be used with the Jiménez et al. article. This is because it would be beneficial to work in how the identification of certain literary themes and concepts found in the Jiménez et al. article would be more accessible if students have a strong visual and print literacy base to work from. This promotes for a study to be done in order to figure out when students should be learning these visual and print literacy skills, and if graphic novels offer easier access points for students from different learning backgrounds.


Research Topic: “How Has Technology Significantly Played a Role in Society During the Pandemic”

There is always a crisis whether worldwide or nationwide; it can go from something not as big of a deal to very life threatening. Over the past 2 years, we have had to deal with the Covid Pandemic and the damages it has done to lives, the economy and living statuses. With covid coming into place, a lot has changed both positively and negatively. Technology use has reached its peak due to the covid pandemic; a lot of adjustments has been made to people’s lifestyle and the cost of living has gone up. With the pandemic, many people have lost their jobs causing them to be unemployed, but technology has brought up more jobs for people. How has technology helped with the virus?

With covid coming into place, technology has been put to great use from it being used to bring awareness to the people about the virus and also to keep them updated about how people can identify if they’ve been affected, to keeping them in the know of whether or not a cure or treatment to eradicate the virus but all to no avail until the year 2021. Scientists did find out who are more vulnerable to the illness.

            Previous outbreaks revealed that during a health crisis, people with treatable health         conditions suffered disproportionately more because the healthcare system was stretched       too thin to operate properly.[6]

The discovery of the vulnerability has scared a lot of people as most people do suffer from some type of illness or disease enforcing them to social distance and some are even scared to go out. Technology opens up more room for research and exploration especially in the pandemic. How has technology impacted education?

During the pandemic, online classes have been enforced in order to try to get everyone to stay home and practice social distancing. For many students especially freshmen, this change is not good since they have not gotten the experience of the school they are attending. Placing a huge focus on college students, learning behind a screen is not fun and neither is it educational. It encourages cheating in so many ways. Learning behind a screen can be very distracting and a lot of the students are visual learners or learn better in person.

The study, published Sept. 4 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,        shows that, though students felt as if they learned more through traditional lectures,    they actually learned more when taking part in classrooms that employed so-called    active-  learning strategies. (Harvard study)

As a sophomore student in college having more in-person classes this school year, I feel like I am learning better than last year as I was easily distracted last year and got very lazy leading me to slack in my academics. In what way has technology helped the community spread awareness?

Technology has really helped the community to spread awareness and further investigation on the disease and how to eradicate it. Robots were made and put to use to help make life or living easier.

In all, AI is used to identify, track and forecast outbreaks, it is helping in diagnosing the   virus. It is used in processing healthcare claims. The drones and robots are used to    deliver food and medicine supplies as well as in sterilizing public places. AI is helping to          develop drugs and coronavirus vaccines using supercomputers [6](ncbi)

Computers are being used to monitor the spread of outbreaks in different areas of the world and with this record, the government then decided what steps they want to take to reduce the outbreak like lockdowns and travelling restriction. At some point, the numbers went down as people were getting vaccinated and procedures were being followed but signs were saying if you were vaccinated, you did not need to wear a mask everywhere and that was when the outbreaks increased because not everyone who were not wearing a mask was vaccinated. Now it is required to wear a mask whether or not you are vaccinated because you can still get the virus even when vaccinated. The use of advanced technology helps in trying to fight the epidemic and decrease the outburst also spreading awareness for social distancing. Social media has been used to spread the awareness of safety procedures and emphasize getting the vaccination.


“COVID-19 and Digital Health: What Can Digital Health Offer for COVID-19?” World Health Organization, World Health Organization, 10 Apr. 2020,

Reuell, Peter. “Study Shows That Students Learn More When Taking Part in Classrooms That Employ Active-Learning Strategies.” Harvard Gazette, Harvard Gazette, 5 Sept. 2019,




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