Muscles of the Thorax

Activities

Muscles of the Thorax, Abdomen, and Posterior Back

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Associated SLOs

1. Identify and define anatomical features of the spinal cord on a model or diagram for both longitudinal

view and cross-sectional views.

2. Apply learning outcomes 1 to describe signaling pathways via spinal nerves, including sensory and

motor information.

Required Materials

• Lab manual • Spinal cord cross section model

Procedure

1. Review all background information to answer the questions below.

2. Identify the following features on the spinal cord model:

o Posterior (dorsal) median sulcus

o Anterior (ventral) median fissure

o Posterior (dorsal) horn

o Anterior (ventral) horn

o Lateral horn

o Gray commissure

o Posterior (dorsal) root

o Posterior (dorsal) root ganglion

o Anterior (ventral) root

o Posterior (dorsal) column

o Anterior (ventral) column

o Lateral column

o Central canal

o Pia mater

o Arachnoid mater

o Subarachnoid space

o Dura mater

o Spinal nerve

Check Your Understanding

1. Name the layers of the meninges is from superficial to deep.

2. Fill in the following table:

Example of a Muscle

Innervated by Nerve

Nerve Nerve Plexus

Cervical

Triceps brachii

Ulnar

Flexor carpi radialis

Musculocutaneous

Deltoid

Femoral

Adductor Longus

Sacral

The dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater.

 

 

 

 

3. Number the pathway in order from receiving a sensory signal to exciting a muscle via motor nerves:

____ Anterior root

____ Sensory nerve innervating the muscle

____ Anterior Ramus

____ Descending tracts of white matter

____ Posterior horn

____ Brain

____ Posterior root

____ Motor nerve innervating the muscle

____ Ascending tracts of white matter

____ Posterior ramus

____ Anterior horn

____ Posterior root ganglion

 

 

1. The Dura matter is the most superficial layer of the meninges, the epidural space is the potential space betwen dura matter and the skull. The Arachnoid matter is the middle layer of meninges, the subarachanoid space lies between dura matter and pia matter.Pia matter is the inner most layer of the meninges, unlike other layers this tissues adheres close to the brain.

 

 

Activities

Nervous Tissue Anatomy

Associated SLO

1. Describe the composition of gray and white mater and provide examples of brain structures made of

each.

 

Required materials

• None

Procedure

This activity will be completed individually or in small groups. Refer to the background information to answer

the questions below.

Check Your Understanding

Define the following terms and provide examples of each in the central nervous system

 

Terms Definition Examples in CNS

Gray mater

White mater

 

 

 

 

Brain Anatomy

Associated SLO

2. Describe and identify the brain meninges: dura mater, arachnoid mater, & pia mater

3. Define the following structural features of the brain: gyrus, sulcus, fissure

 

Required materials

• None

Procedure

This activity will be completed individually or in small groups. Refer to the background information to answer

the questions below.

Check Your Understanding

Categorize the following terms and provide a one line definition for each of them. For the meninges, also rank

them from the most superficial layer to the deepest layer.

Gyri, pia mater, sulcus, arachnoid mater, fissure, dura mater

Brain meninges Definition

Superficial-

 

Deepest-

Brain structures Definition

 

 

 

 

 

Anatomy of the brain

Associated SLO

4. Identify brain structures on a dissected brain specimen, model, or diagram.

Required materials

• None

Procedure

This activity will be completed individually. Refer to the background information to answer the questions

below.

Check Your Understanding

Label the following diagram with the appropriate structures

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sheep brain dissection

Required materials (provided)

• Gloves • Lab coat • Dissection tray • Knife • Sheep brain specimen

Procedure

This activity will be completed groups of 3-4 in the dissection lab. Please read the following steps carefully

before you begin.

1. Place the sheep brain specimen in the tray, dorsal side up (Fig 23.11 A).

2. Identify the cerebrum, the longitudinal fissure and the two hemispheres of the brain. You can also

locate examples of gyri, sulci and the different lobes of the cerebrum.

3. Place the brain in the tray ventral side up (Fig 23.11 B) and identify the cerebellum, pons, medulla and

optic chiasma. Place the brain on the tray, dorsal side up. Locate the longitudinal fissure and gently try

to widen it with your fingers (Fig 23.11 C).

4. Insert a knife in the fissure and cut through the brain into two longitudinal halves (Fig 23.11 D).

5. With the cut sides facing up, identify the thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal body, pons and medulla.

6. Locate the corpus collosum and lateral ventricles.

7. Observe the cut surface of the cerebellum and try to identify the tree like structure made of white

mater called arbor vitae or “tree of life”.

8. Compare the structures that you see in your dissected samples to those from other groups.

9. When you are done observing the sheep brain specimen, dispose it off in the biohazard bin and clean

the dissecting tray and knife.

10. Your TA will help you identify the same structures on a dissected human brain.

 

Figure 23.11 Sheep brain A) Dorsal side up B) Ventral side up C) Separated along longitudinal fissure

D) Dissected sheep brain.

 

 

 

Figure 23.12 Dissected Sheep brain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cranial Nerves

Associated SLO

5. For each cranial nerve

a. Use the summary table (Table 23.1) as your source for this information.

b. Identify by both name and number on a model or diagram.

c. Provide one example of a function

d. Identify whether each nerve carries sensory information, motor information, or both types of

information.

 

Required materials

• None

Procedure

This activity will be completed individually. Refer to the background information to answer the questions

below.

Check Your Understanding

1. Identify and label this diagram with appropriate cranial nerves.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. Fill in the blanks to complete the table.

 

Name Number Type Function

Vestibulocochlear

 

 

 

 

 

 

V

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Both Motor information to the face.

 

 

 

 

 

Oculomotor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Activities

Functional Anatomy of Motor Control

Associated SLOs

1. Name key regions of the brain involved in motor control and summarize the role they play in motor

control.

Procedure

This activity will be completed individually. Refer to the background information to complete the table below.

Check Your Understanding

1. Complete the table below on the role structures of the brain play in motor control.

Nervous system structure Role in motor control

Brain stem

Thalamus

Motor cortex

Cerebellum

 

 

 

 

 

Motor Control Pathways

Associated SLOs

2. Describe spinal cord tracts associated with movement.

Procedure

This activity will be completed individually. Refer to the background information to complete the exercise

below.

Check Your Understanding

State whether each of the following statements is True or False. If false, re-write the statement to make it

true.

2. The axons of the corticobulbar tract are ipsilateral.

3. The pyramidal decussation is where most of the fibers in the corticospinal tract cross over to the

opposite side of the brain which have control over different domains of the musculature.

4. The anterior corticospinal tract is composed of the fibers that cross the midline at the pyramidal

decussation.

5. The lateral corticospinal tract is responsible for moving the muscles of the arms and legs.

6. The anterior corticospinal tract is responsible for controlling the muscles of the face.

7. The lower motor neurons that control the axial muscles of the trunk are located in the medial regions

of the ventral horn.

8. The anterior corticospinal tract is entirely contralateral.

9. The tectospinal tract projects from the midbrain to the spinal cord and is important for postural

movements that are driven by the superior colliculus.

10. The reticulospinal tract allows posture, movement, and balance to be modulated on the basis of

equilibrium information provided by the vestibular system.

Answer the following questions in 3-4 sentences.

11. How does the cerebellum contribute to the motor system?

12. How do lower motor neurons cause skeletal muscle contractions?

 

12. How do lower motor neurons cause skeletal muscle contractions?

How does the cerebellum contribute to the motor system

 

 

Voluntary Movement

Associated SLOs

3. Identify different phases of voluntary movement.

4. Apply the above SLOs to describe the fundamentals of voluntary movement control.

Procedure

This activity will be completed individually. Refer to the background information to complete the exercise

below.

Check Your Understanding

13. Name different regions of the nervous system that are involved in each of the following phases of voluntary

movement.

 

Phase of Voluntary movement Area of the nervous system

Planning

Initiation

Execution

 

 

 

 

14. Find a partner and designate one person in the group as the ‘actor’. The actor will pick and perform one action.

This can be as simple as standing up from your chair or lifting your phone from the desk. Keep the action as

simple as possible. The other partner will fill out the following table below based on that person’s action. Switch

roles and repeat for a different action. Refer to the example in this lesson to divide the action into different

steps and refer to previous lessons to precisely describe the anatomy associated with the chosen actions.

Action performed (in simple words)

Steps taken (in order) Anatomical region involved

Planning

Initiation

Execution

 

Region of the CNS:

 

 

 

Region of the PNS:

 

 

 

 

Action (in anatomical

terms) Nerve involved Name of muscle

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Activities

Anatomy of the eye

Associated SLOs

1. Identify and describe internal and external eye structures on a model, eye specimen or diagram.

 

Required Materials

• Colored tape or post-it notes • Sharpie or marker • Eye model

Procedure

This activity requires you to label the structures of the eye on a model. You are provided a list of terms below

and you are expected to use every term provided. Using colored tape or post-it notes, please write the

number that corresponds to the term from the list and place them on your model.

 

List of Terms:

 

Eye – Internal Eye – External & Accessories

Anterior portion

Sclera

Cornea

Anterior chamber

Aqueous humor

Iris

Pupil

Posterior chamber

Lens

Ciliary body

Suspensory ligament

Posterior portion

Posterior cavity

Vitreous humor

Retina

Fovea centralis

Macula lutea

Optic disc

Tapetum lucidum

Choroid

Optic nerve

 

Lateral rectus muscle

Medial rectus muscle

Superior rectus muscle

Inferior rectus muscle

Superior oblique muscle

Inferior oblique muscle

Pupil

Iris

Sclera

Lacrimal caruncle

 

Check Your Understanding

1. Label the following figures by using the terms listed in the previous page.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-Cow Eye Dissection

The cow eyes functionally and structurally similar to the human eye. During this activity, you will dissect a cow

eye, identify several structures of a cow eye and learn their functions.

 

 

 

 

Associated SLOs

1. Identify and describe external and internal eye structures on a dissected eye.

Required Materials (Provided)

• Preserved cow’s eye • Single-edged razor blade or scalpel • Dissection scissors • Dissection tray • Forceps • Latex gloves • Paper towel • Plastic trash bag

Procedure:

You will complete this activity in dissection lab as group of 2-3. Please read the following steps carefully before

you begin and while doing dissection.

1. Put on your personal protective gloves and get a cow eye from your TA.

2. Place the preserved cow eye on a dissecting tray.

3. Examine the external features of the eye.

– Note the large amount of fatty tissue and muscles surrounding the eye.

 

 

 

4. Cut away all the thick fat and the muscle surrounding the eyeball. Avoid cutting the tough optic nerve

on the back of the eye.

Fat

Muscle

Cornea

 

Optic

nerve

Fat

 

 

 

 

5. Using a scissor or scalpel, carefully cut through the sclera around the middle of the eye.

– While cutting through the sclera, a clear watery fluid will seep out which is aqueous humor.

– Note the tough consistency of the sclera and relate that to this layer’s function.

 

 

 

6. Separate the anterior and posterior portions of the eye.

Cornea

Optic

nerve

Cornea

Aqueous

humor

Sclera

 

 

 

 

 

7. Examine the vitreous humor and anterior structures (cornea, pupil, iris, ciliary body, lens).

8. Remove the vitreous humor and lens from the anterior portion of the eye to examine the iris and pupil.

 

9. Examine the posterior structures (retina, optic disc, tapetum lucidum, choroid, optic nerve).

– Note the tapetum lucidum which is not present in humans

10. Carefully remove the retina and examine the reflective layer beneath the retina.

 

Vitreous

humor

Cornea

Lens

Ciliary

body

Pupil

Iris

 

 

 

 

 

11. When you are done with the eye dissection, dispose of the eyeball in the biohazard bin and wash the

dissection tray, scalpels and scissors.

 

 

Cow Eye Dissection Lab Observation Sheet

Describe your observations of the parts of the cow’s eye as you worked through the dissection and connect

structure to function for each of the given structures:

 

Sclera:

 

Cornea:

 

Muscles and Fat:

 

Pupil:

 

Retina

Optic disc

Optic nerve

Optic disc

Tapetum

lucidum

Choroid

Retina

 

 

 

Iris:

 

Lens:

 

Optic Nerve:

 

Aqueous Humor

 

Vitreous Humor:

 

Retina:

 

Tapetum Lucidum:

 

Notes:

 

Check Your Understanding

1. Name the major anatomical difference between the cow eye and human eye that you observed.

 

________________________________________________________________________________________.

2. Why does the optic nerve cause a blind spot?

 

________________________________________________________________________________________.

3. If you enter a dark room after being in a bright room, what would happen to your pupil- get smaller or get

larger? Why?

 

________________________________________________________________________________________.

 

 

 

4.What is the function of the muscles surrounding the eye? How do they affect vision?

 

_________________________________________________________________________________________.

5. Light first enters the eye through the lens.

A) True

B) False

6. What is the white layer that surrounds eye?

A) Cornea

B) Retina

C) Ciliary body

D) Sclera

7. Which one of the following correctly lists the order of the parts through which light passes?

A) cornea, vitreous humor, lens, posterior cavity

B) cornea, posterior cavity, lens, vitreous humor

C) lens, vitreous humor, cornea, posterior cavity

D) cornea, lens, vitreous humor, posterior cavity

 

8. Fill in the blank with the appropriate words.

 

Structure Function

creates electrical impulses that are sent to the brain

External muscles

pigmented structure which controls diameter of pupil

Fovea

protects eyes against infection

Ciliary body

the jelly-like substance filling the central cavity of the

eye

Lens

contains light-sensitive cells – allows us to see details

clearly

Optic nerve

 

 

 

 

Activities

Anatomy of the ear

Associated SLOs

1. Identify and describe external, middle and inner ear structures on a model or diagram.

 

Required Materials

• Colored tape or post-it notes • Sharpie or marker • Ear model

Procedure

This activity requires you to label the structures of the ear on a model. You are provided a list of terms below

and you are expected to use every term provided. Using colored tape or post-it notes, please write the

number that corresponds to the term from the list and place them on your model.

 

List of Terms:

 

External & Middle Ear Inner Ear

Pinna (auricle)

Auditory canal (external acoustic meatus)

Tympanic membrane

Auditory (Eustachian) tube

Malleus

Incus

Stapes

Oval window

Round window

Cochlea

Cochlear nerve

Vestibule

Anterior semicircular duct

Posterior semicircular duct

Lateral semicircular duct

Vestibular nerve

 

 

Check Your Understanding

1. Label the following figure by using the terms listed in the previous page.

 

 

 

 

 

2. How does information from the ear get to the brain? Illustrate with a simple diagram.

 

 

Check Your Understanding

2. How sound waves striking the tympanic membrane result in movement of fluids in the inner ear?

 

 

 

________________________________________________________________________________________.

 

3. Do you think prolonged exposure to loud noise cause hearing loss? Why?

 

_________________________________________________________________________________________.

 

5. What is the function of the inner ear?

A) Direct sound waves to the tympanic membrane.

B) Transforms sound waves into vibrations

C) Connects the middle ear with the nasopharynx

D) Transmit vibrations to the brain

 

 

8. Fill in the blank with the appropriate words.

 

Structure Function

Vestibule

transmits the electrical impulses generated for hearing to brain

Pinna

connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx

Tympanic membrane

transfers the vibration of the auditory ossicles to the cochlea

Vestibular nerve

transforms the sound in neural impulses

Auditory canal

transmits the sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear

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