Marriage Counseling

For many years there was no apparent need for a separate profession of marriage counselors. People with marital problems talked with their doctors, clergy, lawyers, and teachers. The first centers for marriage counseling were established in the 1930s. Paul Popenoe opened the American Institute of Family Relations in Los Angeles, and Abraham and Hannah Stone opened a similar clinic in New York. A third center was the Marriage Council of Philadelphia, be- gun in 1932 by Emily Hartshorne Mudd.

At the same time these developments were taking place, a parallel trend among some psychoanalysts led to conjoint marital therapy. Although most analysts followed Freud’s prohibition against contact with a patient’s family, a few broke the rules and experimented with therapy for married partners.

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