Infants’ learning of the sounds

  1. Multiple Choice Questions (30 Points; answer all 10; 3 points each)

    

     Please be sure to explain your answer.

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  1. The term competence refers to

 

  1. an native speaker’s perfect inner/mental knowledge of a language and all its grammatical rules
  2. the ability to read, write, speak, or listen, as the occasion demands
  3. knowledge of how to analyze a language, to diagram sentences and recognize parts of speech
  4. the ability to speak in a fluent and effective manner

 

Explain your answer:

 

 

 

  1. A researcher wants to know whether 8-month-old English-acquiring infants can discriminate the sounds of German, a language closely related to English, from those of Thai, an unrelated language. Which method is the best one to use?

 

  1. high-amplitude sucking procedure
  2. conditioned head-turn procedure
  3. preferential looking procedure
  4. kicking rate procedure

 

Explain your answer:

 

 

 

  1. Consider the two English words cattle and castle. Which of the following is FALSE?

 

  1. The words differ in terms the place and manner of articulation of one sound
  2. The words differ in terms of the manner of articulation and presence or absence of voicing of one sound
  3. The words differ in spelling and sound
  4. The words are a minimal pair

 

Explain your answer:

 

 

 

  1. The words and, if, and the would be considered

 

  1. closed class words
  2. open class words
  3. content words
  4. conjunctions

 

Explain your answer:

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following best describes infants’ learning of the sounds of their languages?

 

  1. Infants come into the world being unable to perceive most speech sounds, and must gradually learn to hear the differences between sounds in their native language
  2. Because infants can hear in utero, they come into the world being able to perceive only those speech sounds in their native language (and not perceiving nonnative contrasts)
  3. Infants come into the world being able to perceive most possible speech sounds, and gradually lose the ability to distinguish sounds that do not occur in their native language
  4. Infants, like adults, can naturally distinguish nearly all of the important speech sounds for the various languages of the world, and this ability does not change with age

 

Explain your answer:

 

 

 

  1. One criterion for believing that a baby is engaging in intentional communication is that

 

  1. she no longer uses gestures to accompany her vocalizations
  2. her mother thinks that she is communicating
  3. she vocalizes while reaching for objects
  4. she persists in attempts to communicate if she is not understood

 

Explain your answer:

 

 

 

  1. Human language has been said to be biologically innate because

 

  1. children produce limitless and novel utterances although their input is limited
  2. children will learn language even if no one speaks to them
  3. very young children use vocalizations to make their wishes known
  4. children’s first words are related to bodily functions

 

Explain your answer:

 

 

 

  1. Given the following vocalizations from pre-verbal infants, who do you think is the oldest?

 

  1. Infant A: [m], [i], [a]
  2. Infant B: [bamima]
  3. Infant C: [dada], [bibibibi], [mʌmʌmʌ]
  4. Infant D: cries only

 

Explain your answer:

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Riley is an 11-month-old being raised in an English-speaking home. A discrimination test

reveals that she cannot discriminate between Hindi dental vs. retroflex stops. This is most

likely because

 

  1. Riley has Specific Language Impairment.
  2. Riley has learned that this contrast is not phonemic in English.
  3. Hindi has a more difficult phonological system than English.
  4. Riley’s mother is not maternally responsive in their interactions.

 

Explain your answer:

 

 

  1. Children’s overextensions may reflect

 

  1. problems with lexical retrieval
  2. differences between child and adult concepts
  3. use of language for analogy
  4. all of the above

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