Hypertension

Several factors result in hypertension in populations of all ages. However, the condition has the highest prevalence of up to 72% in geriatric populations, making it probable comorbidity for Mr. J.R (Divney et al., 2019). The condition results from increased cardiac output or altered peripheral resistance and causes extreme blood pressure in vessels. Major vessels’ endothelium is thick enough to sustain this high pressure but tiny blood capillaries’ walls fail to withstand this change resulting in their damage. The impaired microcirculation interrupts free and hemoglobin-facilitated oxygen diffusion between blood and intracellular space, causing cellular hypoxia and eventual cellular death. Cellular death in kidneys constitutes AKI.

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