Figures Handled in the Standard LATEX Manner

For example: \begin{figure}[!t] \centering \includegraphics[width=2.5in]{myfigure} \caption{Simulation Results.} \label{fig_sim} \end{figure}

Note that (1) figures should be centered via the LATEX \cent ering command—this is a better approach than using the ce nter environment which adds unwanted vertical spacing; (2) the caption follows the graphic; and (3) any labels must be declared after (or within) the caption command.

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When referring to figures in typical IEEE papers, authors should use the abbreviation “Fig.”, but in Computer Society conference papers they should use the full word “Figure”. IEEEtran provides the string macro \figurename which contains the correct name to use for the given formatting mode.

The \includegraphics command is the modern, pre- ferred, way of including images and provides a flexible in- terface that makes it easy to scale graphics to size. To use it, the graphics or graphicx (the latter is recommended) must first be loaded.

It is strongly recommended that authors be familiar with the graphics package documentation [18] as well as Keith Reck- dahl’s excellent Using Imported Graphics in LATEX 2ε [19]. The reader is reminded that the “draftcls” or “draftclsnofoot”, not “draft”, class option must be selected in order to get draft papers with visible figures.

As explained in Appendix D, Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) or Portable Document Format (PDF) is the preferred graph- ics format for LATEX work. Furthermore, the user’s draw- ing/graphing application should be capable of outputing di- rectly in EPS (or PDF) vector form (which will not degrade or pixelize when magnified)—although photos will likely have to be in (EPS/PDF) bitmap form.

The psfrag package [20] might also be of interest. Psfrag allows the user to “go into” an EPS graphic and replace text

strings contained in it with real LATEX code. In this manner, LATEX’s extensive support of mathematical symbols and fonts can be extended to figures made with applications with more modest glyph support. Using psfrag does require the use of the dvips DVI to PostScript conversion step (not pdfLATEX’s PDF mode) as some of the features of the PostScript language have to be utilized.9 pdfLATEX users can use psfrag by “preprocess- ing” their figures by importing them into a dummy document using psfrag, running LATEX followed by dvips, then converting the PostScript output to a PDF graphic for direct importation into the main document which is then processed by pdfLATEX. There is additional usage information on psfrag in the Using Imported Graphics in LATEX 2ε guide [19].

1) Subfigures: Subfigures can be obtain via the use of Steven Douglas Cochran’s subfigure [21] or subfig [22] pack- ages. Be forewarned that the former is no longer being maintained and, although self-contained and compatible with IEEEtran, is becoming incompatible with an increasing num- ber of other LATEX packages including fixltx2e.sty. For this reason, subfigure.sty is not recommended for new work and will not be covered here.

It is important to note that subfig.sty package options are usually required to obtain IEEE compliant subfigure captions. Furthermore, compsoc format requires a larger sans serif font than the serif footnote size font used in traditional IEEE for- matting. There is a further complication with subfig.sty in that this package depends on caption.sty, which, in its default con- figuration, will overrride IEEEtran’s handling of captions— resulting in non-IEEE style main captions. To prevent this, be sure to invoke subfig.sty’s caption=false option, which has been available since version 1.3 (2005/06/28). Thus, the recommended way to load subfig.sty is:

\ifCLASSOPTIONcompsoc \usepackage{subfig} \else

\usepackage{subfi g} \fi

Because multiple (sub)figures usually require more width than is available in a single column, subfigures are often used within the double column figure environment (Section X-D):

\begin{figure*}[!t] \centering \subfloat[Case I]{\includegraphics[width=2.5in]{subf igcase1} \label{fig_first_case}} \hfil \subfloat[Case II]{\includegraphics[width=2.5in]{sub figcase2} \label{fig_second_case}} \caption{Simulation results.} \label{fig_sim} \end{figure*}

Note how captions can be tagged to each of the subfigures as well as to the overall figure via an optional argument to the \s ubfloat command. However, most IEEE authors/journals do not employ subfigure captions, but instead reference/describe

9PDF is much like a subset of PostScript—the latter is a Turing complete programming language, the former is not.

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