Diabetes and Drug Treatments

Diabetes and Drug Treatments

Introduction

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Diabetes and Drug Treatments
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. (McCance & Huether 2019). The symptoms of diabetes result from a deficiency of insulin or cellular resistance to insulin’s actions.

Type 1 diabetes

According to McCance & Huether (2019), type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common pediatric chronic disease and affects 0.17% of US children, and the incidence is increasing. Rosenthal & Burchum (2021) notes that in autoimmune-mediated DM, environmental-genetic factors are thought to trigger cell-mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Generally, type 1 diabetes develops during childhood or adolescence, and symptom onset is relatively abrupt (Rosenthal & Burchum 2021). It, however, needs to be noted that type 1 diabetes can also develop during adulthood. Type 1 diabetes was once called juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). This term is no longer commonly used because older children are frequently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.

Peak onset at age 11–13 years four is slightly earlier for girls than boys. It is rare in children younger than one year and adults older than 30 years. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by severe insulin deficiency or no insulin secretion. Insulin is the mainstay of therapy for individuals with type 1 diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2018).

Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) affects 9.3% of adults in the United States (Rosenthal & Burchum 2021). According to Rosenthal & Burchum (2021), age, obesity, hypertension, physical inactivity, and family history are the most well-recognized risk factors. Evidence shows that diet, including diet during pregnancy, influences the long-term risk of type 2 DM in children and adults. Type 2 diabetes is different from type 1 diabetes in that the risk of developing diabetes increases after age 40 years. In general, incidence increases with age into the 70s; among certain races, incidence peaks between 40 and 50 years, then falls with frequent contributing factors to precipitate type 2 diabetes among those susceptible. A significant factor in populations recently exposed to westernized environment increased risk related to duration, degree, and distribution of obesity.

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy (McCance & Huether 2019). The management and care of gestational diabetes are much the same as any other diabetic pregnancy: blood glucose should be monitored and controlled with diet and insulin. Rosenthal & Burchum (2021) reports that the diabetic state disappears almost immediately after delivery in most cases, permitting discontinuation of insulin. However, if the diabetic state persists beyond parturition, it is no longer considered gestational and should be rediagnosed and treated accordingly. In women taking an oral drug for type 2 diabetes, the current practice is to discontinue the oral medication and switch to insulin (Rosenthal & Burchum 2021). The only exception is the oral agent Metformin, which is often satisfactory for managing type 2 diabetes in pregnancy. Patients who discontinue oral medications can resume oral therapy after delivery.

Type 2 diabetes

I want to focus more on type 2 diabetes because I have experience providing care to these kinds of patients. Type 2 diabetes can be treated with various oral and injectable drugs. Among the oral medicines, Metformin, and sulfonylureas (e.g., glipizide, Glucotrol) are mostly used. Among the injectable drugs, insulin is used most widely. As type 2 diabetes progresses, less and less insulin is produced. As a result, it is common for people with type 2 diabetes to require insulin therapy to manage glucose levels better eventually.

Treatment option: Metformin (Biguanide).

Metformin is available alone in immediate-release (IR) tablets (500, 850, and 1202 1000 mg) as Glucophage; in extended-release (ER) tablets (500, 750, and 1000 mg) as Glucophage XR, Fortamet, and Glumetza; and in an oral solution (500 mg/5 mL) as Riomet (Rosenthal & Burchum 2021). Typically, Metformin is started immediately after the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. The most common side effects are gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances: lactic acidosis, a potentially fatal complication rarely noted. Metformin works by lowering blood glucose, improving glucose tolerance by inhibiting glucose production in the liver and by reducing glucose absorption in the gut (Rosenthal & Burchum 2021). Another benefit of Metformin is that it sensitizes insulin receptors in target tissues (fat and skeletal muscle), increasing glucose uptake in response to whatever insulin may be available.

If not contraindicated and if tolerated, Metformin is the preferred initial pharmacologic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2018). This therapy should not be discontinued once other therapy treatments are introduced to manage diabetes. Metformin should be continued when used with other agents, including insulin, if not contraindicated and if tolerated.

Complications related to diabetes and treatment option

Diabetes has short- and long-term complications on a patient. Hypoglycemia, upsent GI, unpleasant metallic taste in mouth is some of the short-term complication of diabetes type 2 treatment. The Long-term use of Metformin may be associated with biochemical vitamin B12 deficiency, and periodic measurement of vitamin B12 levels should be considered in metformin-treated patients, especially in those with anemia or peripheral neuropathy.

Long term complication includes diabetic neuropathy, cardiovascular disease, and stroke which is twice as common in those with diabetes; Peripheral vascular disease is atherosclerotic occlusive disease of the lower extremity. Diabetic microvascular complications can arise because of diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy which is a leading cause of blindness worldwide is common in diabetic patients. Diabetic kidney disease is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease (Rosenthal & Burchum 2021). Approximately 50% of individuals with DM develop diabetic kidney disease (McCance & Huether 2019).

A diet rich in fiber, especially cereal fiber, may reduce diabetes risk (Ley et al., 2014). Alcohol consumption has been shown to increase the risk for diabetes. According to Ley et al. (2014), greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been associated with higher type 2 diabetes risk in a meta-analysis. Vegetarian diets devoid of animal products have been demonstrated to reduce diabetes risk.

Conclusion

Diagnosis of diabetes was once made solely by measuring blood levels of glucose. However, in 2010, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommended an alternative test based on measuring hemoglobin A1c—a test that provides an estimate of glycemic control over the previous 2 to 3 months. Once a patient receives a diagnosis of diabetes, together with their families, they should be familiar with the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. Rapid treatment of hypoglycemia is mandatory: if hypoglycemia is allowed to persist, irreversible brain damage or even death may result (Rosenthal & Burchum 2021).

References

American Diabetes Association. (2018). Pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care, 41(Supplement 1), S73–S85. Retrieved from http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/41/supplement_1/s73.full-text.pdf

Ley, S. H., Hamdy, O., Mohan, V., & Hu, F. B. (2014). Prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: Dietary components and nutritional strategies. The Lancet383(9933), 1999–2007.

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

ORDER NOW »»

and taste our undisputed quality.