Countering Opposing Perspectives

Draft the introduction for your final paper. First, review the following resources on creating an effective introduction: Excelsior OWL–Introduction paragraphs (Links to an external site.) and UNC Chapel Hill-Introductions. (Links to an external site.)

Your introduction paragraph should be approximately 150-200 words. It should:

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  1. Grab the reader’s attention with an opening “hook” – this may be an interesting example, a quotation, an anecdote, or a question related to your topic
  2. Include your thesis statement as the last sentence of the introduction and underline it to make it clear to your reader. It’s expected that your thesis statement has changed and improved since you last submitted it in Milestone 3 based on your instructor’s feedback.
  3. Since you are drafting content that will become part of your final project, which is a formal academic writing assignment, you should avoid informal language (i.e. slang) and first-person pronouns (i.e. “I”, “me”, “my”)

Once you have drafted your introduction paragraph, below it in the same document you will compose an outline of the body paragraphs and conclusion of your paper. First, review the following resource on outlines: Excelsior OWL–Traditional Outlining (Links to an external site.).

Your outline should include at least 3 body paragraphs supporting your thesis statement, 1 body paragraph to refute opposing perspectives, and a conclusion that reiterates your thesis statement. Each body paragraph should include 1-2 supporting details with the source or sources you plan to use as evidence for that detail. This way you will determine if you have enough evidence for your points, which will make it much easier to draft your full paper in the coming weeks or find additional sources if necessary.

Follow the format in the Milestone 5 Template 

Step 3: Reference List

Since you are including source information in your outline, you need to include a list of references at the end for all of your sources. This should be formatted in APA style, just as you did last week for Milestone 4.



[Delete the examples in Red and fill in your own work.]


Student Name

IND101 Milestone 5 Template


Introduction paragraph (approx. 150–200 words):

In the year 2016, Americans purchased approximately 17.5 million vehicles; less than 1% of these sales were electric or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Meanwhile, other nations, like China and Norway, have eclipsed the United States in electric vehicle market share (Sperling, 2018). There is no doubt from the international scientific community that carbon emissions from traditional internal combustion engine vehicles contribute significantly to climate change, and that electric vehicles represent a viable strategy to curb the automotive industry’s negative impact on the environment. Why then do electric vehicle sales still lag in the United States and what can be done to increase sales? The US government should increase the incentives for the production and consumption of electric cars because the United States is falling behind other nations in market share of electric cars, they are still too expensive for most consumers, and research demonstrates that electric cars are effective at reducing carbon emissions, which contribute to climate change.



I. Supporting Point 1

A. Topic sentence: The United States, once a world leader in automotive innovation, is quickly falling behind other nations in electric vehicle market share.

B. Supporting detail: The largest EV market is China, with more than half of the world’s EV sales (Sperling, 2018).

C. Supporting detail: European Parliament and EU set 2020 targets for EVs and charging stations in all EU member states (Noori & Tatari, 2016).


II. Supporting Point 2

A. Topic sentence: However, the biggest hurdle to the United States keeping pace with global trends on electric vehicle consumption is the cost for consumers.

B. Supporting detail: [Continue adding paraphrased information or quotations from your sources as supporting details as in the examples above.]

C. Supporting detail:


III. Supporting Point 3

A. Topic sentence:

B. Supporting detail:

C. Supporting detail:


IV. Countering Opposing Perspectives

A. Topic sentence: Some researchers have argued that the shift from traditional vehicles to electric vehicles should be slowed, not quickened, because of their potentially harmful effects on the environment.

B. Supporting detail: Electric vehicles are powered by batteries charged by electricity, so some argue that the benefits of EVs are lessened because of the pollution caused by the “dirty, coal-fired power plant” needed to create the energy (Sperling, 2018).

C. Refuting detail: However, as we move away from coal toward renewable energy like wind and solar power or nuclear energy, this negative effect is eliminated. For example, “in France, where most electricity comes from nuclear power, the environmental benefits are enormous” (Sperling, 2018).


V. Conclusion

A. Review central ideas presented in body and make connection to thesis: It is clear from the research that a transition to electric vehicles will significantly reduce carbon emissions and contribute positively toward the global fight against climate change. However, in order to facilitate this transition, the US government needs to increase production and consumption incentives for electric vehicles since the US is falling behind other nations in its market share of EVs, and American consumers are slow to shift from traditional vehicles because of the cost.

B. Closing thoughts: Climate change is a serious, global challenge affecting all of humankind, and every step toward the transition to electric vehicles is a step in the right direction.



Li, C., Cao, Y., Zhang, M., Wang, J., Liu, J., Shi, H., & Geng, Y. (2015). Hidden benefits of electric vehicles

for addressing climate change. Scientific Reports5, 9213.

National Research Council (U.S.). (2015). Overcoming barriers to deployment of plug-in electric vehicles. National Academies Press.

Noori, M., & Tatari, O. (2016). Development of an agent-based model for regional market penetration

projections of electric vehicles in the United States. Energy96, 215–230.

Sperling, D. (2018). Electric vehicles: Approaching the tipping point. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists74(1), 11–18.



Ronald McClarin

IND101 Milestone 4 Template


1. Paraphrasing activity:


Quote from source: “Our data demonstrates the vulnerability of the economics of an emergency care system that nearly universally reimburses emergency clinician services through fee-for-service payments. During the pandemic period, there were large declines observed for both adult and, even more so, pediatric visits, which severely impacted revenue, early in the pandemic. Visit rates subsequently increased but have remained well below 2019 levels. Another relative decline in ED visits occurred in September. This was more dramatic for pediatric visits, likely because many schools remained remote. This may have reduced child activities that can lead to pediatric ED visits, including reduced spread of infectious disease and fewer accidental injuries.”


Paraphrase: The decrease in patients visiting the Emergency Department (ED) during the pandemic resulted in a shift in income received by the emergent clinicians providing the care. This was more prevalent amongst children who were no longer attending school physically drastically removing the environment that would typically end in them visiting the ED. (Zocchi et al, 2021)


2. List of references:

Pines, J. M., Zocchi, M. S., Black, B. S., Kornas, R., Celedon, P., Moghtaderi, A., Venkat, A., Shawbell, J., Dietzen, P., & Eterovich, J. (2021). The Effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Economics of United States Emergency Care. Annals of Emergency Medicine78(4), 487–499.


Kreps, S., Dasgupta, N., Brownstein, J. S., Hswen, Y., & Kriner, D. L. (2021). Public attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination: The role of vaccine attributes, incentives, and misinformation. Npj Vaccines6(1).

Troiano, G., & Nardi, A. (2021). Vaccine hesitancy in the era of COVID-19. Public Health194.

Tolentino, G., Wood, J., & Riley, S. (2021). Distributed Operations in Response to COVID-19: Assessing Workforce Perceptions of Productivity and Success. Optimizing Operations28(97), 262–318.


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