Colligative Properties

 Colligative properties of solutions are properties that depend on the ____________ of solute particles in the solution but do not depend on ____________. The concentration terms in the equations for various colligative properties pertain to all solute species present in the solution. So an electrolyte that dissociates into two ions will have ____________ the effect on colligative properties as a ____________ that remains as a single particle.

Vapor Pressure Lowering

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The equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid is the ____________ exerted by its gaseous phase when ____________ and ____________ are occurring at equal rates. To vaporize, solvent molecules must be present at the ____________ of the solution. When ____________ particles are present, they disrupt the ability of the surface molecules to ____________ by occupying some of the surface area available to solvent molecules and thereby ____________ the rate of solvent vaporization. Since the rate of ____________ is unaffected by the presence of solute, the net result is that the vaporization-condensation equilibrium is achieved with ____________ solvent molecules in the vapor phase. Substances that evaporate easily, and thus have a measurable vapor pressure, have relatively ____________ intermolecular forces and are said to be ____________.

Raoult’s lawThe partial pressure exerted by any component of an ideal solution is equal to the vapor pressure of the component when it is ____________ multiplied by its ____________ in the solution.

If a solution is made up of two volatile components (such as two liquids), the total vapor pressure above the solution is the ____________ of the vapor pressures of each of the components.  If the solute is an electrolyte, the ions are each included in the ____________ calculation.

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