Carcinogenesis Phase

The carcinogenesis phase, when a tumor metastasizes, involves spreading cancerous cells from its original site to other parts of the body. Sarantis et al. posit that carcinogenesis results from the action of one or many chemicals and physical or genetic insults to the cells. This process occurs in three stages initiation, promotion, and progression. The metastasis can be either through the lymphatic system or the bloodstream. Chemo-preventive agents prevent the invasion of the primary tumors, and angiogenesis thus is effective in preventing cancer from metastasizing. Most cases of pancreatic cancer begin in the cells lining the pancreatic ducts.

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