Papers to consider:

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

Teo, S.P. (2021). Review of COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines: BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273. Journal of Pharmacy Practice. Online ahead of print.

Ward, D., Higgins, M., Phelan, J.E., Hibberd, M.L, Campino, S., and Clark, T.G. (2021). An integrated in silico immuno-genetic analytical platform provides insights into COVID-19 serological and vaccine targets. Genome Medicine 13:e4. 00822-6

Assignment: Read the papers of Teo (2021) and Ward et al. (2021) (see first two papers above) and then work through the process below:

Open the COVID Profiler webpage referenced in Ward et al. (2021) using the following link:

Read the ‘Step 1’ box and click on the button for the ‘SARS-CoV-2 Immunoanalytics tool + HLA-I Data’ (warning: it will take quite some time to load the full genome layout with features, but after the loading process has completed, you should see a circular representation of the genome and the associated mapped metadata)

Explore the SARS-COV-2 genome and associated metadata, paying close attention to the pop-up windows that appear as you roll over the genome features – especially the links contained therein

Use the tool and information provided in the papers to address the questions below in an essay format (other supplemental information is also provided (see below)

completed your term paper,

Now consider the questions below for this term paper, and address each of these questions in essay format


1) What do current serological diagnostics (i.e., “COVID-19 tests”) “target”?

2) Are there other potential diagnostic “targets” available? If so, what are the advantages/disadvantages of this/these over the conventional targets used now (e.g., especially considering the “non-synonymous mutation’ metadata in the ‘SARS-CoV-2 Immunoanalytics tool’), and what is/are the functions of this/these target/s?

3) What role do/can modern bioinformatics tools play in vaccine/serological diagnostic development, specifically, and in COVID-19 epidemiology, more generally?

4) How would you characterize the role of bioinformatics in the current pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and all its mutated variants (e.g., the ‘delta’ and “omicron” strains), versus pandemics of the past?

Links for Other Supplemental Information:

CDC: “Past Pandemics”

CDC: “Understanding mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines”

CDC: “What You Need to Know About Variants”

Elixir-bio tools: “Everything COVID-19”

GIS-AID: “Tracking Variants” (including “3D Structure of Spike with Amino Acid Changes”) John Hopkins: “Coronavirus Resource Center”

(an image of the ‘Dashboard’ is provided as a .pdf file in Content/Exams/Final Exam should your browser not be compatible)

PMC: “Figure, Single-stranded RNA genome of SARS-CoV-2”

Science Focus Magazine: “Would Spanish flu be as deadly if it occurred today?”


and taste our undisputed quality.