Assist in facilitation of student learning Formative Assessment

Activity 1

Games are one learning approach used in the classroom. In consultation with teachers, you may need to guide students in games or make up games of your own. Create and provide a detailed description of one game or physical activity that could be implemented to teach students academic content/ theories.

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You need to:

◦provide instructions

◦explain the aims of the game/ activity

◦specifically explain how the game/ activity helps to teach academic content/ theories

Provide: we are going to use balancing beam for balance our body while walking and to use our hand eye coordination skills.

Explain the aims: Today when we went outside reeya collected some

Balance beam and asked river for help. She said, “can you help me in making a bridge”? Then I asked Reeya, “what are you going to do with them”? She said, “I am making a bridge”. She hold a beam very strongly and then bent down to put on the ground in a square shape. Then she started balancing. She opened her arms wide and waving her arms up and down pretend as she is flying. When she was balancing on the beam she was stepping in and out of the beam. Her eye and foot co-ordination was getting better when she was doing it again and again. When she finished she said I did it. I said, “well done reeya I liked the way you across the bridge”.

Explain:I noticed that reeya has an ability to control her movements in a purposeful way and manipulate objects such as balancing on beam she was joining beam altogether to make square shape. She has a good control on her weight shift and weight bearing which helped her to change the position of body while she is running or climbing. Her body muscle is very flexible for easy movements. Her hand and foot co-ordination is good. Playing with larger ball she has a good hand and eye coordination in catching or throwing the ball. When she kicked the ball she maintained balance on her one leg and kicked the ball with second leg. She is becoming confident climber. Her muscle group is flexed and stretched to full use in climbing.

Four possible intentional teaching experiences:

1.            I will teach kids to put one foot in front of the other and use their arms for stability. This will help them in balancing on the beam.

2.            To improve their hand and eye coordination I give choose some activities such as tossing bean bag into the bucket, catching or throwing balls.

3.            We used a ball for this simple relay, but any object could be used, as long as the child passes and receives the object with both hands. Make sure that they are sitting either cross-legged, or on their knees to make sure their hips stay stable while their shoulders turn. It will improve their catching and throwing ball activity.

4.            For an engaging activity for overall development of large motor skill coordination, I will set up an obstacle course with common household items such as chairs, boxes, pillows for children to run and crawl through

)Your role: (include enthusiasm, encouragement, respect and safety)

1. I will provide them a positive and safe environment.

2. I will give them a plenty of encouragement and support.

3. I will support children’s effort and encourage as appropriate way

Trainer comment: please write this whole in your own words

Activity 3

Go back to the activity/ game that you created in Assessment activity 1 and make a list of any required resources needed to complete that activity and explain how they will be used. Come up with alternative resources that could be used if the required resources were not available and explain how they could be used. (100–150 words

Today she was excited to climb up the tree. When she noticed a bird nest on the tree. She said, “I am climbing up to the tree and want to see bird nest”. She used her both hands to hold the ladder and put her one foot on the first step of ladder and trying to pulling herself up. She tried to reach second step and stretch her body and balanced her hand and eye coordination. She looks at me and smile. Then she started swinging on the ladder and pushed the ladder with her foot. She was holding the ladder so strongly.

If this resources was not available I would use the beamand little boxes for walking for my body balancing.

-When she was balancing on the beam she was stepping in and out of the beam. Her eye and foot co-ordination was getting better when she was doing it again and again. When she finished she said I did it. I said, “well done reeya I liked the way you across the bridg

Trainer : please write this in your own word.

Activity 4

Create a lesson plan for an arts activity. Ensure that all the sections of a lesson plan, as detailed in the text, are completed.

Grade Level: 1 – 3rd

 Subject: Arts

 Length of Time: 30-40 Minutes

Art Lesson Plan

In this visual and performing arts lesson, students will explore their artistic skills while becoming more connected with nature. Students will look for fallen plants outside or in the garden and they will use them in the classroom to make art

Objective outcomes

Students will apply artistic processes and skills, using a variety of media to communicate meaning and intent in original works of art

Materials

Materials Needed

•school yard with trees and fallen leaves

•construction or plain paper

•scissors (optional)

•glue

Procedures:

Opening to Lesson

Note: This lesson is to be done outdoors on a very nice day. I recommend trying to get volunteers in advance to help with monitoring the students. This could also be a good big-buddy, little-buddy activity.

•The teacher will lead a discussion with students about how nature makes its own art.

•Talk about the beautiful colors in the fall, the unique shapes of leaves from different trees, the different textures of rocks, dirt and sand, etc… be specific to your area.

•Ask students to name some works of art that they see every day outside

Note: Have a waste bin ready to throw away any trash they find

Closing

Let students share and describe their art that they made with their partner, and then with the class. Once they dry, you can post the pictures in the classroom.

Activity 5

Refer to the lesson plan you developed in the fourth assessment activity. Write a transcript of the instructions you would issue throughout the activity. (100–250 words

Talk with students about what they know about preserving the environment.◦Don’t litter

◦Don’t vandalize or break anything in nature

•Ask students what colors are found in the plants around the school yard/garden at school.

•Tell students that today they will go outside for a fun lesson making art from found materials.

•Explain that they are only to use things that they have found that is not still attached to the plant.

•They can find fallen leaves, dirt, sand, sticks, but they should not pick anything off of trees or flowers.◦Emphasize that they want to conserve the environment the way it is.

•Explain that they will be given paper, scissors and glue to make their work of art from nature.

•Give students about 5 minutes to think about what they could make. They can use the materials to recreate the trees or garden that they can see in the school-yard or they can make their own nature scene from their imagination.

•Talk about what materials the students can use to make this scene. Dirt, leaves, etc…

•Bring the students outside and have them sit in an orderly fashion, lined up or on their PE numbers if available. They should each have a little space to work quietly.

•Tell students to go and search for interesting fallen leaves, dirt, grass, small rocks, sticks, etc… always thinking about how they are going to use each object.

•Have them bring the objects back to their spot and sort them neatly.◦Optional: They can use the scissors to cut the leaves.

•When students have their objects ready, give them paper, cover it in glue and let them get to work creating their environmental masterpiece!◦This will work ideally with Elmer’s liquid glue, but depending on the age, you may want to just give them glue sticks

Activity 6

1

Locate the website of each of the state/ territory’s education department’s website. Find and record the web address for the page on which syllabuses can be found.

NSW   , Queensland, Tasmania, Victoria, western Australia, northern territory, south Australia ( find the web address).

2.

Identify and comment on the English syllabus for kindergarten students. (80 words)

Students bring to school a range of knowledge, understanding and skills developed in home and prior-to-school settings. The movement into Early Stage 1 should be seen as a continuum of learning and planned for appropriately.

In addition, teachers need to acknowledge the learning that children bring to school, and plan appropriate learning experiences that make connections with existing language and literacy development, including language used at homeStudents develop reading, viewing and comprehension skills and strategies using context, grammar, word usage and phonics to make meaning from short, predictable printed texts on familiar topics. They interpret and provide relevant explanations of characters and main events in imaginative texts, and key ideas and visual features in short informative texts, making connections to personal experience. Students recognise, discuss and respond to the different kinds and purposes of various written, visual and digital texts from a variety of cultures. They read with some fluency and accuracy, drawing support from concepts of print and their developing sound and letter knowledge. Students explore and identify some features of texts, including the use of rhyme, letter patterns and sounds in words in written and spoken texts

Activity 7

Undertake your own research and provide a detailed description of expressive language disorder. Include symptoms of the disorder in your description and identify anything that can be done to help students with the disorder. (100–150 words

Children with expressive language disorder (also referred to as expressive language impairment) have difficulty expressing themselves through speech, writing or gesture.

For many children, the cause of expressive language disorder is unknown.

Treatment for expressive language disorder depends on its severity, but might include therapy with a speech pathologist

What is expressive language disorder?

Children with expressive language disorder have difficulty conveying or expressing information in speech, writing, sign language or gesture. (For preschool children, the difficulty expressing themselves in writing is not evident, as they have not started formal education.)

Some children are late in reaching typical language milestones in the first three years, but eventually catch up to their peers. These children are commonly referred to as ‘late-talkers’. Children who continue to have difficulty with verbal expression may be diagnosed with expressive language disorder or another language impairment

Symptoms of expressive language disorder

Children with expressive language disorder have difficulties combining words to form accurate phrases and sentences. For example, a child may not use the correct form of the verb tense (they might say ‘I goed’ when they mean ‘I went’) or they might omit important grammatical words (they might say ‘I going’ when they mean ‘I am going’).

They typically produce much shorter phrases and sentences than other children of the same age, and their vocabulary (the number of words they know and use) is smaller and more basic.

 Children with expressive language disorder are usually below the average level for their age in:

•putting words and sentences together to express thoughts and ideas

•recalling words

•using language appropriately in a variety of settings with different people (for example, at home, in school, with parents and teachers).

Specific examples of expressive language impairment include:

•a seven-year-old child being unable to join sentences with words like ‘and’, ‘but’ or ‘if’ (such as ‘I went to the movies. I had popcorn’ instead of ‘I went to the movies and had popcorn’ which is a more mature form of expression

•a three-year-old child who speaks in two-word phrases only (such as ‘mummy car’ when they mean ‘That’s mummy’s car.’).

where to get help from

speech pathlogoist

your doctor

your maternal and child health nurse

Things that can be done:

Speech Therapy approaches and activities that can support the child with a language disorder and/or their carers include:

Daily activities: Providing parents with interaction strategies to develop language that can be implemented during daily activities within the home.

Multi-sensory approach: Using a multi-sensory approach (e.g. sight, taste, smell, touch) to learn new words and concepts.

Motivating tasks: Using the child’s interests to help develop their language skills.

Fun activities: Using fun play based activities or games to help motivate the child to learn.

Visuals (e.g. pictures, signs) can be used to help develop/aid understanding and expressive language where appropriate and to help develop oral language in story telling.

Books: Teaching how to use books and stories to aid language development.

Vocabulary: Developing strategies for improving vocabulary knowledge and use.

Sequencing: Developing strategies for improving the ability to sequence events and stories.

Grammar: Completing activities to improve the appropriate grammatical elements of language (e.g. use of past tense –ed, plural ‘s’).

Alternative forms of communication: Teaching alternative ways of communicating whilst language is developing (e.g. sign language, Picture Exchange Communication System – PECS).

Activity 8

1

Create a worksheet that might be distributed to students in an art class

GRADE TWO VISUAL ART LESSONPLAN # 1

Topic Difference in our world                                    Time : 30 minutes

“Difference colours”

Brief description of lesson activity:

Student will compare of artwork in black and white and in colour, discuss how different colours in artwork make then feel and complie a list of sources of colour in their lives. Student s will then have the opportunity to observe colour outside and will be asked to  draw the outline of one colourful object they observe. On the outline students will label the colours of the object but the picture will remain in pencil. Students will have an opportunity to discuss the objects they saw and their drawings.

Visual Art Learning Objectives:                                                      Common Essential Learning objectives

                                                                                                       1. Critical and creative thinking,

1. know that colour is called an element of ar                                    communciation

2. realize that everone does not respond the same

way to a work of art

3. describe the visual environment and visual information in own

daily lives

Assessment:

Assessment is achieved for this lesson plan through the completion of an assessment checklist. A copy of the checklist is provided following the visual arts lesson plan#1.

Supplies:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            

-black and white photocopy of ted Harrison painting

-colour copy of Ted Harrison painting

-pencil and paper enough for students

. Copies of Ted Harrison Artwork included after lesson plan#1

Components

step by step procedure:

1. show students the black and white copy of ted Harrison painting and ask what they think about it.

2.show students the colour of the painting and ask them to complete the two and share what they think.

which one they like more? why they like it more? The impact of the colours? etc.

3. Tell students tat colour is one of the elements of the art and that we can find many different colours not just in art work but in our everyday lives. Empahasize that the different names of the colours we see are called hues examples i.e yellow is a different hue in red.

4. Ask student how they would feel if everything was exactly the same colour. Ask students to give you examples of colourful things in their lives that they think are beautiful and write then down on the board.

5. Take students outside and have them draw the outline of the a colourful object (i.e flower,tree,playground,etc) Tell students to label the colours of the sections of their objects so they are able to colour them later.

6. Take student back inside and give them the opportunity to share their drawing with each other. Discuss the many colours their drawing represent and the beauty different colours bring to our world

2. Undertake your own research and explain how you would modify the worksheet for a student with dyslexia. (150 words

Listening to children’s feelings. Anxiety, anger and depression can be daily companions for children with dyslexia. However, their language problems often make it difficult for them to express their feelings. Therefore, adults must help them learn to talk about their feelings.  

 Rewarding effort, not just “the product.” For students with dyslexia, grades should be less important than progress

 When confronting unacceptable behavior, do not inadvertently discourage the child with dyslexia. Words such as “lazy” or “incorrigible” can seriously damage the child’s self-image.  

 Helping students set realistic goals for themselves. Many students with dyslexia set perfectionistic and unattainable goals. By helping the child set an attainable goal, teachers can change the cycle of failure

Schools can implement academic accommodations and modifications to help students with dyslexia succeed. For example, a student with dyslexia can be given extra time to complete tasks, help with taking notes, and work assignments that are modified appropriately. Teachers can give taped tests or allow students with dyslexia to use alternative means of assessment. Students can benefit from listening to books on tape and using text reading and word processing computer programs. 

Teaching students with dyslexia across settings is challenging.  Both general education and special education teachers seek accommodations that foster the learning and management of a class of heterogeneous learners.  It is important to identify accommodations that are reasonable to ask of teachers in all classroom settings.  The following accommodations provide a framework for helping students with learning problems achieve in general education and special education classrooms.  They are organized according to accommodations involving materials, interactive instruction, and student performance.

Accommodations Involving Materials

Students spend a large portion of the school day interacting with materials.  Most instructional materials give teachers few activities or directions for teaching a large class of students who learn at different rates and in various ways.  This section provides material accommodations that enhance the learning of diverse students.  Frequently, paraprofessionals, volunteers, and students can help develop and implement various accommodations.  Material accommodations include the following:

 Clarify or simplify written directions.  Some directions are written in paragraph form and contain many units of information. These can be overwhelming to some students.  The teacher can help by underlining or highlighting the significant parts of the directions.  Rewriting the directions is often helpful.  

 Present a small amount of work.  The teacher can tear pages from workbooks and materials to present small assignments to students who are anxious about the amount of work to be done.  This technique prevents students from examining an entire workbook, text, or material and becoming discouraged by the amount of work

Activity 9

Identify one learning activity that requires a demonstration (eg a science project or making a cake). Provide a point-by-point description of the demonstration you would give to deliver the learning activity to students

Cook Up Some Science Fun

What kid can resist edible science? Kitchen experiments can be the most interesting, because they involve common, everyday household items and yet point out some great science concepts. For example, most children are familiar with cake baking, even if they’ve only watched (and smelled) the process from a distance. They’ve seen cake batter go into the oven and seen the resulting fluffy cake come out after the baking time. Many have wondered exactly how the cake changes from batter to confection, and a surprising number have come to erroneous conclusions like the oven drying the batter out. Help them apply the scientific method and reasoning skills to the process with this simple hands-on experiment that shows why cakes need the ingredients that are in the recipe.

Supplies and Ingredients

Before you present this experiment to children, you’ll want to try it out yourself in the privacy of your own kitchen. Some steps may require a bit of practice, and you’ll want a flawless performance when you are helping kids try the steps in your classroom or group. Here’s what you need to know:

Materials and Equipment Needed:

Small cereal bowl, aluminum foil, pie pan, measuring spoons, small bowl for egg, small mixing bowl, knife to cut cake, timer, oven and mixing spoon.Ingredients for 4 cakes (amounts shown are for one cake)

6 Tablespoons flour

Ready, Set, Bake!

Wrap several layers of foil around the outside of the cereal bowl to mold into a small bowl shape. Remove the foil from the bowl and put it in a pie pan for support. Oil the inside of the foil bowl. Make four of these.

Preheat the oven to 350 degrees.

You will make four cakes. One should have all of the ingredients above. Leave the following ingredients out of the other cakes: oil out of one cake, egg out of the second, and baking powder out of the third. Here are general directions for the small cakes, but don’t forget to leave an ingredient out of three of them!

Mix the dry ingredients together. Add the wet ones. Stir until completely mixed. Put the batter into one of the foil pans. Be sure to keep track of which cake is which! Bake for 15 minutes.

When the cakes are done and have cooled enough to handle safely, cut into all four cakes. Look at the insides, and offer tastes of each to the group. While they are looking and tasting, discuss the science that they are noticing. Why did each cake turn out the way that it did?

Getting Down to Science

Cakes “work” because the heat from the oven causes chemical reactions to occur in the batter. Each of the main ingredients in traditional cake recipes is serving an important purpose. By looking at the cakes and matching them up with the missing ingredients, the children will find out what jobs each ingredient is doing. The cake lacking baking powder will be flat and somewhat hard. Baking powder is responsible for making the bubbles in the batter that leave the cake light and fluffy. The cake that has no egg will have a very strange texture because the protein in egg gets harder when heated to help the cake become firm. The cake that has no oil in the batter will be very dry and crumbly, because the oil normally keeps the cake from drying out in the heat of the oven.

Younger children will enjoy simply finding out what function each ingredient in the cake batter serves. Older students can be encouraged to do more in-depth research to discover exactly how each of those ingredients accomplishes its job in the baking process. You can encourage them to conduct additional experiments and present their findings to the group in true science-fair fashion.

Activity 10

  1. Provide ten examples of effective praise statements

1. Make eye contact.

2. Move close to the student if it appears natural.

3. Smile.

4. Give specific praise based on the type of result you wish to have:For Praise to Reinforce Behavior​

Describe the behavior you want to reinforce telling how you feel about it with specific comments like, “Your thoughts were well organized in this essay,” or “I liked your use of transitional phrases.” Don’t say this is a great paper. The younger the student, the more immediate the praise should be. At the high school level, most students are able to enjoy delayed praise.

For Praise to Raise Self Esteem

5,Tie this praise to some admirable personality characteristic. For example, you might say, “That was hard for you, but you kept going. You have great endurance,” or “You are such a considerate person. People are lucky to have you as a friend.”

Effective praise must be given with sincerity and enthusiasm.

6.Some phrases that may help are:”I like it when you…

7.Hey, you are really sharp, you…

8,I’m very proud of you for…

10.Thank you for…

11.That’s a great way of…

2.What do you think you could do to establish positive, mutually respectful relationships with students? (75–100 words

1.Review what happened. Discuss the incident with Johnny. Begin with fact finding to be sure that you are appropriately correcting the student. The worst way to affect teacher-student relationships is to unfairly discipline a student.

2.Identify and accept the student’s feelings. Tell Johnny that you understand why it upset him to hear somebody call his mother a name and that you, too, would be upset if someone maligned your mother. It’s important to understand that this step communicates that you respect and understand his feelings but that you are not accepting his actions.

3.Review alternative actions. Go over with Johnny the different actions he could have taken, such as ignoring the remark or reporting it to a teacher.

4.Explain the building policy as it applies to the situation. Remind Johnny of the building policy of not fighting and that the rule is if anyone hits another student, he or she will be sent to the office and possibly be suspended from school.

5.Let the student know that all students are treated the same. Make sure that Johnny understands that all students must adhere to the policy and that any student who disregards the rule will suffer the consequences.

6.Invoke an immediate and meaningful consequence. Communicate with the office about what happened and send Johnny to the office.

7.Let the student know you are disappointed that you have to invoke a consequence to his or her action. Tell Johnny that you are disappointed that his actions have led to this situation.

8.Communicate an expectation that the student will do better in the future. Remind Johnny that, although you do not approve of his actions and do not like to send him or any student to the office, you like him and know that he will make a better choice next time. Also tell him that you are there to support him and work through these issues with him in the future.

Activity 11

You are preparing a learning activity to be used in a class with a mix of visual, auditory and kinaesthetic learners. The subject of the lesson plan is great painters in art history. How would you ensure that all students’ learning styles are catered to? Give an outline of the lesson plan. (100–250 words)

As we plan learning with the brain in mind, (it) is critical to ask a different set of questions. Rather than ask “What should I teach?” ask “How will students best learn?” As you plan the learning, keep the focus on the basic principles that support the brain’s natural learning tendencies. Follow through from pre-exposure to celebration, making sure that none of the stages in between are skipped. Learning happens over time. Create a complex, integrated, interdisciplinary curriculum that provides for plenty of learner choice. Provide structure, but in an environment that respects each learner’s unique nature, needs, and experiences

◾Pre-expose learners to new material in advance. The more background they have, the greater number of connections they’ll make.

◾Discover your students’ background in the subject, and customize your planning to their experience level and preferred learning style.

◾Create a supportive, challenging, complex, no-threat classroom environment in which questions and exploration are encouraged.

◾Ensure that your materials and presentation strategies are age appropriate.

◾Acquisition happens both formally and informally; provide learning experiences that reflect real life.

◾Always plan for elaboration. Presenting is not learning; students must process the learning before they own it.

◾Help learners encode learning in their memory with appropriate use of downtime, emotions, real-life associations, and mnemonic techniques.

◾Functional integration happens only over time and with repeated reviews

Take lab classes. Lab classes offer kinesthetic learners the perfect opportunity to interact with the materials pertinent to their class. If you can, try taking classes that include a lab element so you get as much hands on time as possible.

Go on field trips. Going to a museum, park or historical place that relates to what you’re learning can be a great interactive way to understand what you’re learning about.

Interact with professors and classmates. Don’t just sit quietly in the back of class, ask questions, interact with teachers, and work with other students. This will create a much more engaged learning experience and you’ll take more away from it.

Write and draw lecture materials. Just sitting and listening to a lecture may not be enough to make it stick in your mind. Take notes and make sketches related to class to reinforce the material.

Sit near the front. It will be easier for you to interact with your teacher and see what is going on if you sit near the front

Activity 12

Go back to the lesson plan you created in the fourth assessment activity. Using this lesson plan, create a lesson summary and highlight the role of the teacher aide/ teaching assistant. (200 words)

In this visual and performing arts lesson, students will explore their artistic skills while becoming more connected with nature. Students will look for fallen plants outside or in the garden and they will use them in the classroom to make art

Note: This lesson is to be done outdoors on a very nice day. I recommend trying to get volunteers in advance to help with monitoring the students. This could also be a good big-buddy, little-buddy activity.

•The teacher will lead a discussion with students about how nature makes its own art.

•Talk about the beautiful colors in the fall, the unique shapes of leaves from different trees, the different textures of rocks, dirt and sand, etc… be specific to your area.

•Ask students to name some works of art that they see every day outside

what material the teacher would giving to finished their activities example all the nature plants and bark.

I would also is how the children would perform their activity for the results.

Guiding and helping the children.

Naming colours and feeling the texture of the nature ingredients.

How to write a sentence and when to use what,   where, there.

encourage children to learn and use the proper communication skills verbally and nonverbally.

Activity 13

Students are learning about the weather in class. Identify opportunities for incidental learning that students might encounter relating to weather.

In 100–150 words, explain how incidental learning could enhance learning activities

Weather Observations

-Observe the Wind:

-Make a Classroom Rain Gauge

-Charting and Graphing the Weather

-Daily weather charts

incidental learning allow you to follow the student’s lead and teach the skill within the natural context, enhancing learning activities. This enhances generalization and increases instruction time within the day. However, incidental teaching only works if everyone working with the students knows what skills to target and how to create opportunities for the student to initiate and practice a skill. The time that students are with paraprofessionals in most of our classes is not time that can be wasted and the teacher is not the only one who teaches in our classrooms. Consequently, communicating the targeted skills and ways to create the opportunities is an important part of the chain

Activity 14

Find the outcomes and objectives for the KLA Personal Development, Health and Physical education in NSW relating to Stage 4 and 5 students (ie students in Years 7–10).

Objectives

Knowledge, Understanding and Skills

Students will:

• enhance their sense of self, improve their capacity to manage challenging circumstances and develop caring and respectful relationships

 • move with confidence and competence, and contribute to the satisfying and skilled performance of others

• take actions to protect, promote and restore individual and community health

 • participate in and promote enjoyable lifelong physical activity

• develop and apply the skills that enable them to adopt and promote healthy and active lifestyles

Activity 15

Return to the lesson plan you created in Assessment activity 4. Provide details of how you would modify the lesson plan to cater to the needs of students with a learning disorder or disability of your choice. Be specific. There are a number of ways that activities can be modified for students with physical difficulties. In an art lesson, for example, students could be asked to create a collage using textures rather than colour. (100–150 words

I would asked to use nature collage to using a texture rather than a pencil or painting. The children to use leaves, bark, wooden and stick for craft. Sometimes they can use nature leaves for weaving or threading art craft.

For children with physical disabilities, exploring their environment through movement and play can be challenging. Creating an appropriate setting that provides access to materials and independence to explore and interact is essential to prevent learning deficiencies in all developmental domains

Special Education            

  Ways to Include a Student with Special Needs in Physical Education

1. Sensory Integration

The first two things I always notice about physical  classes are the loud music and fluorescent lights in the gym.  These are major barriers to students with some types of neurological differences.  Many students are also sensitive to bright sunlight outdoors and the sound of squeaking sneakers on the gym floor, making it difficult for physical education teachers to find an appropriate location for class.

2 class size:.By working with the school’s social worker, it is possible to create a positive experience for a student with special needs in a super-sized class.  Peer-to-peer support groups can work together in class to ensure full inclusion.  For example, when my son was having trouble with his gym locker, another student offered to share his locker with him.  When the class separates into teams, 4 or 5 other students make sure that my son understands the rules and his role on the team.

3.

By working with the school’s social worker, it is possible to create a positive experience for a student with special needs in a super-sized class.  Peer-to-peer support groups can work together in class to ensure full inclusion.  For example, when my son was having trouble with his gym locker, another student offered to share his locker with him.  When the class separates into teams, 4 or 5 other students make sure that my son understands the rules and his role on the team.

4. Team Building

Physical Education is the perfect opportunity for team building exercises.  Instead of competitive games, the class can focus on creative games that only succeed when a whole team works together.  “Ants on a log” is my first-grader’s favorite game.

In first and second grade, my son’s phys ed teacher excelled at team building.  Before any game, he explained that the students had to stay with their team and help their team members reach the goal – leaving a team member behind was never an option.

5. Professional Development

Many teachers of physical education complain about a lack of professional development opportunities.  Scheduling is a problem because of coaching duties before and after school, and most continuing education programs are geared toward teachers of academic subjects.

An increasing number of teacher certification programs offer classes in Adaptive Physical Education.  The Adaptive Physical Education National Standards (APENS) organization promotes teacher certification in 15 standards for physical education, and its goal is to place a nationally certified Adapted Physical Educator (CAPE) within every school district in the USA.  Understanding even just a few of these standards can go a long way toward inclusion in physical education.

6. Alternatives

In some cases, enrollment in a physical education class is not feasible.  But it is still possible to incorporate physical activity and healthy lifestyle habits into a special education curriculum:

•take frequent “movement breaks” by going for a walk, learning to jump rope or spending 10 minutes on a playground

•develop a daily 15 minute workout routine

•get permission to use the school’s weightlifting room – sometimes curiosity about various machines is enough to jump-start an individualized exercise program

•follow through on the student’s interest in a specific sport, such as tennis or gymnastics, and develop a fitness routine around that

•follow through on a student’s interest in fitness games on Kinect or Wii

It has been demonstrated again and again that physical education enhances cognitive function and academic performance.  Social skills and collaborative teamwork are also benefits of a balanced physical education program.  So let’s make physical education inclusive and accessible to all students so that they can learn the life lessons that can’t be taught in a traditional classroom.

Activity 16

Think about a time when you have learnt something. You might think about the learning you have done in this course. Reflect on what you have learnt and how you learnt it. Did you set goals? Did you learn what you needed to learn? How would you go about learning in the future? What personal goals could you have set? Write a half to one page reflection on your learning experience

I as a teacher need to understand that the process of setting learning goals is a key part of their learning. Learning goals can help students close the gap between what they have achieved and what they want to achieve. Effective personal learning goals:  • are personally important to the student • can be attained through the student’s own actions • have a reasonable chance of being achieved in a set time frame (e.g. a semester) • include a specific plan of action • answer the student’s questions:  • What do I want to be able to do?  • How will I succeed in this goal?  • What do I need to learn?  • Why will this help my learning?  • What actions should I take to help achieve this goal? • How will my behaviour be different in the future?  It is important that students develop a sense of personal ownership of their learning goals. A combination of discussion, sharing, and writing can help students develop a sense of commitment and a range of goal development skills and strategies

Discussing with students:  • achievements and challenges from the previous semester  • their strengths and areas for improvement, both in and out of class • their goals for the short and long-term.

In leading the discussion, teachers can reinforce the need to: • set achievable and worthwhile goals  • develop a plan of action for achieving their goals • plan for monitoring and reflecting regularly on their goals.

• Encouraging students to discuss and present their goals as a publication or presentation which includes: • a review of last semester’s goals – achievements, challenges and a short explanation for each • learning goals for this semester – rationale for the goal and length of time for achieving the goal • an action plan for achieving each goal – actions, possible challenges and how they might be overcome • an action plan for monitoring goals – with whom will the student discuss their progress, as well as when and how • reflection process – when and how.

I have also learnt that Activities which involve student interaction with content can include listening to and/or watching a live or recorded talk, engaging with a written or visual text, engaging with multimedia, or a combination of these. Typically, students are more likely to retain information presented in these ways if they are asked to interact with the material in some way, which is why it is useful to ask or invite questions, or include another activity type after every 5 or 15 minute ‘chunk’ of information

Activity 17

Unfortunately, there are many shy, unpopular and lonely children who cannot seem to fit in anywhere. They are isolated while desperately craving for friendships. Since isolation in early childhood can have damaging long-term effects such as emotional disturbances, truancy, vandalism and crime in adolescence and adulthood, it is worthwhile to help unpopular children develop social skills.

1

There are a number of things that you can do to encourage lonely or shy students to make friends. Identify at least four

Introducing ‘me’ with extension: After stating their name and listing one thing about them, have each student shake the hands of each student in the group or circle. In return, students in the group/circle can respond by saying “I’m (student’s name),” and give a handshake in return.

Introducing ‘others’: Once students have introduced themselves, divide students in pairs. Prepare a set of 3 questions for each student to answer and share with their peer to further allow them to get to know each other.

Introducing ‘others’ with extension:  After students have had the opportunity to share answers, group 2 or 3 sets of pairs together. Have each pair introduce their peer to the larger group

Introducing ‘others’ with extension:  After students have had the opportunity to share answers, group 2 or 3 sets of pairs together. Have each pair introduce their peer to the larger group.

  • How would you encourage a lonely shy student in your classroom? (80 words

Encourage students to understand and recognize that we are each different and unique in our own ways. For example, some students are naturally more outgoing than others and may find it easier to talk to others; whereas, some students are may have a different experience. This will standardize ‘shyness’ and will further work to represent it in a more positive light.

• Maintain continuous contact with all students, especially those you may recognize as being ‘shy.’ The worry is that it is easy for ‘shy’ children to fall behind and remain in the shadows; once they do, it tends to be harder for them to begin to accept attention when it is given. For example, make a comment, ask a question, make some small talk, or even pass a smile on a daily basis to make them feel included.

• Ensure all students, especially those who are ‘shy’, have a job in the classroom. The goal is to try and give them a job that allows them to feel they are contributing to the classroom and feel connected to other students, while also encouraging them to interact with other students. Some great classroom jobs for shier kids include handing out supplies, collecting materials, or being the line leader.

Activity 18

Students are engaged in quiet work; however, one student called Hannah is talking when she is not supposed to. How might you direct her behaviour? (100–150 words

I would redirect her behaviour:

Change seating arrangements  

• Rearranging the room or furniture

  • Moving the student closer to the teacher 

 • Move the student away from instigating peers  

• Provide a barrier between students 

 • Eliminating distracting items in the classroom  

• Provide organized places for materials and assignments

When a consequence is set to occur for a behavior or if the instructor states that a certain consequence will occur, then it is important to follow through with the consequence if the particular behavior occurred. This should be done for both positive consequences (e.g., delivering a reward contingent on appropriate behavior) and negative consequences (e.g., losing a privilege contingent on inappropriate behavior). It should also be done to ensure that the student does not receive the “pay-off” for a behavior (e.g., continue to present the work demands even though the student’s behavior is occurring to escape).

Increase student’s belief in self and their own capabilities in various situations by positive self-prompts. The student can be taught a repertoire of positive statements, such as “I am capable of doing my work” or “If I study my spelling words every day, I will get a good grade on my test.” The student is taught to repeat such statements as frustrations increase in adverse situations.

Activity 19

1

Complete the table. Conduct independent research to find out the current privacy legislation in each state/ territory

State /territory                        Privacy legislation

Nsw

Queensland

Victoria

South Australia

Tasmania

Western Australia

Northern territory

ACT

  • Provide a summary of how the legislation in your state/ territory affects the way you collect and store students’ personal information. (100 words)

Policy

Schools must:

•have a privacy policy that is endorsed by the school council

•abide by legislative privacy requirements in relation to how personal and health information is collected, used, disclosed and stored

•be reasonable and fair in how this information is treated, not only for the benefit of staff and students, but also

to protect the school’s reputation.

Legislation

This Act applies to all forms of recorded information or opinion about an individual who can be identified, including photographs and emails.  It establishes standards for the collection, handling and disposal of personal information and places special restrictions on ‘sensitive information’ such as:

•racial or ethnic origin

•political views

•religious beliefs

•sexual preference

•membership of groups

•criminal record.

Health Records Act 2001

This Act establishes standards for the collection, handling and disposal of health information including a person’s

•physical, mental or psychological health

•disability.

School compliance strategies

Some strategies school can implement to ensure compliance with the Privacy Acts include:

•nominating a person to manage and review the school’s information privacy

•conducting a privacy audit to determine what information the school collects, how information is used and with whom information is shared

•developing a privacy policy, endorsed by the school council, to address a wide range of issues such as the use of student photographs, electronic devices and confidentiality

•examining data security arrangements

•ensuring all staff, including volunteers, are aware and compliant with the school privacy policy

•establishing a complaints process in liaison with the regional office

•treating all privacy complaints in the strictest confidence.

Objectives and principles

The objectives of privacy laws are to:

•balance the public interest in the free flow of information while protecting personal and health information

•empower individuals to manage, as far as practicable, how personal and health information is used and disclosed

•promote responsible, open and accountable information handling practices

•regulate personal information handling by applying a set of information privacy principles.

Information privacy principles create rights and obligations about personal and health information; however these only apply when they do not contravene any other Act of Parliament.  In most cases there will be no contradiction as the relevant action falls within one of the exceptions within the information privacy principles. 

Privacy and parents/guardians

Providing information to parents/guardians

To assist decision making about a student’s needs, schools inform parents/guardians of the student’s academic progress, behaviour, educational options or special educational requirements.

Privacy laws do not restrict this use of the information, as this is the purpose for which it is collected.

Court orders

Unless a court order is made under the Family Law Act, both parents of a student have the same rights to access information about the student

Schools must:

•provide a privacy notice with the enrolment form explaining to the parents and student why this information is being collected, what it is used for, where it might be disclosed and how they can access information held about them

•only use the information collected during enrolment for the purposes that it was collected for.  Disclosure for an unrelated purpose requires parental consent or in the case of a secondary student the content of the parent and student, unless the circumstances fall within one of the above privacy exemptions

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